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  Divine Singularity


The word singularity represents and conveys the following distinctive merits: uniqueness, exclusivity, inimitability, individuality, exceptionality, and nonconformity.  Truthfully, all of these meritorious representations apply to the foundational precepts of the Christian faith and are encompassed in the word “ONE” as in the following.


One God


In the beginning God . . . . (Genesis 1:1a)


Scripture is adamant that there is only one God, the one and only living God (Deuteronomy 5:25, 26; Joshua 3:10; 1 Samuel 17:26; Hosea 1:10; Matthew 16:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9)  who is self-existent, self-sufficient, eternal, all-powerful and in need of nothing outside of Himself (Genesis 14:19; Exodus 3:14; 6:3; 9:29; 19:5; Deuteronomy 10:14; Job 41:11; Psalm 24:1; 50:12-14; 83:18; 92:8; 93:2; Acts 17:24, 25; 1 Corinthians 10:26, 28).


He alone spoke (created) the universe (all material substance out of non-substance) into existence (Genesis 1:1, 3, 6, 9, 14, 16, 20, 24, 26; Psalm 33:6; 148:5; Hebrews 11:3).  He alone is supreme throughout His entire creation (Psalm 7:17; 9:2; 21:7; 97:9; 1 Kings 8:27; 22:19; Isaiah 6:1; Revelation 4:1-11), and will not share His glory with any created entity (Isaiah 42:8).


God is love (John 3:16; 1 John 4:7, 8, 16) and is therefore involved in His created order (Psalm 139:1-10; Acts 17:28; Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 8:6; 12:6; Ephesians 4:6; Colossians 1:17; Hebrews 1:3) and its intended end (Isaiah 46:10, 11; Ephesians 1:5, 11; Colossians 1:12; 1 Peter 1:4), executed by and through His attributes, His composition, and His character.


Attributes of God


1)      Eternality – Exodus 3:14; Psalm 102:12; Hebrews 13:8


2)      Goodness – Exodus 34:6, 7; Psalm 25:8; James 1:17


3)      Grace – Psalm 145:17; Romans 3:24; 5:15, 20; Ephesians 4:7; Hebrews 4:16


4)      Holiness – Exodus 3:5, 6; 1 Samuel 2:2; Psalm 99:2, 3; Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 4:8


5)      Immanence – Jeremiah 23:23, 24; Acts 17:27, 28; Haggai 2:5


6)      Immutability – Malachi 3:6; James 1:17


7)      Justice – Genesis 18:25; Exodus 34:6, 7; Nehemiah 9:32, 32; Romans 9:14-33; Psalm 99:4; Romans 1:32; 1 Peter 1:17


8)      Love – Deuteronomy 7:7, 8; Romans 5:5-8; 1 John 4:7, 8, 16


9)      Mercy – Psalm 6:4; Romans 9:23, 24; Ephesians 2:4; Titus 3:5; Hebrews 4:16; 1 Peter 1:3


10)  Omnipotence – Jeremiah 32:17; Psalm 115:3; Matthew 19:26; Mark 14:36; Ephesians 1:11; Hebrews 1:3


11)  Omnipresence – 1 Kings 8:27; Job 11:7-9; Psalm 90:1, 2; 139:7-10; Jeremiah 23:23, 24


12)  Omniscience – Psalm 147:5; Ezekiel 11:5; Acts 15:18; Romans 2:16; 11:33; Hebrews 4:13


13)  Righteousness – Genesis 18:25; Psalm 19:7-9; 145:17; Jeremiah 9:24


14)  Self-Existence – Exodus 3:14; Psalm 90:2; John 1:1-5; 5:26; Colossians 1:15-17


15)  Sovereignty – Genesis 14:19; Exodus 18:11; Psalm 115:3; Matthew 10:29; Romans 9:15; Ephesians 1:11; 1 Peter 3:17


16)  Transcendence – Psalm 113:5, 6; Isaiah 55:8, 9; 57:15; John 8:23


Composition of God


In His composite form “God is Spirit” (John 4:24), but what is difficult for man to grasp is that although God is One, He reveals Himself and interacts with His creation through three distinct personalities, i.e., Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.  In truth, the One God is a “trinity.” The doctrine of the Trinity – a term not found in Scripture but adopted by theologians to express clarity in the concept of the Living God – refers to the divine essence (nature) of God who reveals Himself through three distinct Persons. 


These three Persons are the (1) Father, (2) Son and (3) Holy Spirit.  These three are separate and yet are One, i.e., One God who manifests Himself through three unique personalities who share the same attributes.  Each One is co-equal and co-eternal in power and glory though each One’s role and function distinguishes Him – the Father sends the Son, the Son obeys the Father, and the Holy Spirit brings glory to both (John 5:16-30; 16:12-16; Acts 2:14-36).


For a more comprehensive treatment of the plurality (tripartite composition) of the One God, the reader may access such by activating the following link:


Character of God*


Throughout Scripture, in God’s dealings with human beings, we see God’s character fully revealed and displayed. In fact, we uniquely see God’s character in action in Jesus Christ, the Lord of Glory, the Word made flesh (John 1:1, 14).  There are at least two statements that must be affirmed concerning the character of God.


First, God’s character is holy love.  It is important never to separate the holiness of God from the love of God.  God is holy (Leviticus 11:44; Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 4:8).  In the first instance, the word “holy” conveys the meaning of separateness and transcendence.  God is the supremely holy One because “He is exalted above all the peoples . . . He is holy” (Psalm 99:2, 3 HCSB).  However, it is the secondary meaning of the word that speaks of God’s moral purity in the sense of God’s separateness from sin.  In this latter sense, as the holy One, God is pure, righteous, and just.  That is why Scripture repeatedly emphasizes that our sin and God’s holiness are incompatible.  His eyes are too pure to look on evil and He cannot tolerate wrong (Exodus 34:7; Romans 1:32; 2:8-16).


Thus, our sins effectively separate us from Him, so that His face is hidden from us (Isaiah59:1, 2).  Closely related to God’s holiness is His wrath, that is, His holy reaction to evil (Romans 1:18-32; John 3:36).  The wrath of God, unlike the holiness of God, is not one of the intrinsic perfections of God; rather, it is a function of His holiness.  But where God in His holiness confronts His image bearers in their rebellion, there must be wrath; otherwise God is not the jealous God He claims to be, and His holiness in impugned.  Ultimately, the price of diluting God’s wrath is to diminish His holiness and moral character.


Nevertheless, God is also love.  Often divine holiness and love are set over against one another, but in Scripture this is never the case.  This is best seen in the context of the affirmation, “God is love” (1 John 4:8).  John, in this context, does not view the love of God as mere sentimentality or a blind overlooking of our sin; rather, he views divine love as that which loves the unlovely and undeserving.  In fact, the supreme display of God’s love is found in the Father giving His own dear Son as our propitiatory sacrifice, which turns back God’s holy anger against us and satisfies the demands of justice on our behalf (1 John 4:8-10).


Thus, in the cross of Christ we see the greatest demonstration of both the holiness and love of God fully expressed, where justice and grace come together, and God remains both just and the justifier of those who have faith in Christ Jesus (Romans 3:21-26).


Second, God’s character is that of moral perfection.  In all of God’s dealings with His creation and with His people, God displays the wonder, beauty, and perfection of His own character.  In His relation to His people, He shows Himself to be the God of grace and truth, slow to anger, abounding in love and faithfulness, wisdom, and goodness (Exodus 34:6, 7; John 1:14-16; Deuteronomy 7:7, 8; Psalm 34:8; 100:5; 103:8; Malachi 1:2, s; 2 Corinthians 1:3; Ephesians 1:3-14; Hebrews 4:16).


Even in His relation to His rebel world, He displays His generosity, kindness, and patience, as well as His righteous and holy judgment (Psalm 65:9-13; 104:10-30; 136:25; Matthew 5:44, 45; Act 14:16, 17; Romans 2:4).  In all of His ways, He is majestically perfect, unchanging (Exodus 3:14; Malachi 3:6; James 1:17), and good.  Ultimately the purpose of human existence, and especially of God’s redeemed people, the Church, is to live before this great and glorious God in adoration, love, and praise and to find in Him alone our all in all (Psalm 73:23-28; Romans 11:33-36).


(*Taken from commentary by Steve J. Wellum, Associate Professor of Christian Theology, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky.)


One Blood


And He has made from one blood every nation of men to dwell on all the face of the earth, and has determined their preappointed times and the boundaries of their dwellings, so that they should seek the Lord, in the hope that they might grope for Him and find Him, though He is not far from each one of us; for in Him we live and move and have our being, as also some of your own poets have said, “For we are also His offspring.” Therefore, since we are the offspring of God . . . . (Acts 17:26-29a)


The unadulterated truth is that all mankind – no matter race, color, or creed – stems back through time to only one set of parents, Adam and Eve who were created in the image of God for a specific purpose, to commune (have fellowship) with God and have dominion over the land and other creatures of His earthly establishment (Genesis 1, 2).  Over time man profusely reproduced until God “separated the sons of Adam” (Deuteronomy 32:8) “over the face of all the earth” (Genesis 10:32; 11:8, 9).


And if this truth would be accepted by all of mankind, possibly there would be no racial perversion along with the hate and cruelty it engenders.  On the other hand, such might only lead to another “tower of Babel” attempt, a perversion of far greater significance.


Still, the reader should understand that we are all of “one blood.” In truth we are all related.  We are all the “offspring of God.”


One Certainty


Remember how short my time is; for what futility have You created all the children of men? What man can live and not see death? Can he deliver his life from the power of the grave? (Psalm 89:47, 48)


Come now, you who say, “Today or tomorrow we will go to such and such a city, spend a year there, buy and sell, and make a profit”; whereas you do not know what will happen tomorrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapor that appears for a little time and then vanishes away. (James 4:13, 14)


 And as it is appointed for men to die once, but after this the judgment. (Hebrews 9:27)


The absolute certainty of physical death followed by a definite judgment before God is expressed throughout Scripture.  And though these two realities may be considered apart, you may be assured that they are intrinsically combined as “one certainty” that everyone will face, excepting only Enoch and Elijah in the past (Genesis 5:21-25; 2 Kings 2:11; Hebrews 11:5) and those who will be taken in the soon-coming “Rapture” (1 Thessalonians 4:17).


It is somewhat mind-boggling how individuals either ignore or belittle the concept of physical death.  For certain, it is not a reality that anyone wishes to consider . . . for several reasons.  Nevertheless, a day doesn’t go by in which we are reminded of this stark reality, either by various news and/or social media or by word-of-mouth.  But when young, we do everything possible to ignore such information, paying only attentive interest when it occurs to someone very close – a time when often more expense and attention is paid to an individual for and during a funeral service than any paid to him during the person’s life. 


It is only when we advance in years that the reality of death becomes more tangible and relevant with each advancing year enforcing its significance and inevitability.  Then again, it is quite unfortunate that a vast multitude of older persons, due to a habitual hardening of heart throughout their lives, continue to ignore the spiritual prospects of corporeal death.


Due exclusively to man’s rebellion (sin) during the early days of his creation, both the death of his body (a degenerative death) and his spirit (an instantaneous death) was incurred from God (Genesis 2:16, 17).  And as it is apparent that physical death will eventually be a person’s lot as one goes through the years of diminishing bodily functions and appearance, one should realize that he is also most definitely “dead in trespasses and sins” (Ephesians 2:1; Colossians 2:13).  Both certainties are largely ignored by man during his corporeal (physical) lifetime, yet, there can be nothing more important to him.  For often, it is only when one honestly and directly faces one’s impending death that spiritual considerations move to the forefront of one’s attention.


And what matters across the board of most, if not all religious dogma, is what follows for the person who passes through the portal of physical death.  Pertaining to this concern Scripture is emphatically clear.


What follows physical death is judgment, no matter the spiritual state of the person who passes on, both the non-Christian (Revelation 20:11ff) and the Christian (Romans 14:10-12; 1 Corinthians 3:11-15; 2 Corinthians 5:10, 11; Colossians 3:25).  Both areas of judgment – one for the non-Christian and one for the Christian – will be based on works, yet, the verdict, the outcome will be remarkably different.  The difference will emanate from God’s comprehensive plan of salvation for all mankind, i.e., whether or not accepted (believed) by the person being judged.  For an accurate (complete) understanding of the differences between the two types of judgment awaiting mankind, the reader is advised to access the studies on the Internet by activating the following links:  (Judgment Seat of Christ by Arlen L. Chitwood) (Salvation of the Soul by Arlen L. Chitwood)


One Salvation


Jesus said to him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” (John 14:6)


But as many as received Him [Jesus Christ], to them He gave the right to become children of God, to those who believe in His name: who were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (John 1:12, 13)


For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting lifeFor God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be savedHe who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. (John 3:16-18)


Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. He who believes in Me, though he may die, he shall liveAnd whoever lives and believes in Me shall never die. Do you believe this?" (John 11:25, 26)


And he brought them out and said, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved?” So they said, “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and you will be saved, you and your household.”

 (Acts 16:30, 31)


For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast. (Ephesians 2:8, 9)


When man considers salvation as it relates to spiritual matters, his thoughts largely center on salvation as it relates to eternity, i.e., the eternal ages subsequent to corporeal life.  And in so doing, he is severely restricted when interpreting various passages of Scripture, all of which are applicable to God’s (one) comprehensive plan of redemption for man.  Each salvation passage has a specific application to one of three facets of the plan, which application may have no relevance to the other two.  This then leads to confusion, since it appears that several passages of Scripture “contradict” each another.  The result being the existence of various denominations and trends in Christendom today that stand in disagreement regarding God’s salvation message pertaining to mankind.


Clearly, there is only one salvation offered by God for mankind, but just as God is composed of three (Father, Son and Holy Spirit) and man, made in God’s image (Genesis 1:26, 27), is composed of three (spirit, soul, and body as clearly seen in 1 Thessalonian 5:23; Hebrews 4:12, etc.), God’s one salvation plan for man embodies three distinct facets, which apply to each of the components of man.  Once this is understood, then all “apparent contradictions” in Scripture will cease to exist.


A detailed treatment of all three aspects of God’s One Salvation for man may be acquired by activating the following Internet links, which provide two complete books by Arlen L. Chitwood on the issue:               (Salvation by Grace through Faith)               (Salvation of the Soul)


In concluding this brief study, as it relates to the different aspects of God’s One Salvation, the following is a reproduction of Chapter 1 of Chitwood’s Salvation of the Soul.


Salvation — Past, Present, Future


For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works, lest anyone should boast. (Ephesians 2:8, 9)


For the message of the cross is foolishness to those who are perishing, but to us who are being saved it is the power of God. (1 Corinthians 1:18)


Are they [angels] not all ministering spirits sent forth to minister for those who will inherit [lit. “for the sake of the ones about to inherit”] salvation? (Hebrews 1:14)


 “Salvation” in the Word of God is spoken of in three tenses — past, present, and future:


            1)  Christians have been saved.

            2)  Christians are being saved.

            3)  Christians are about to be saved.


The previously quoted verses provide examples of how Scripture deals with each of these three tenses or aspects of salvation.


In Ephesians 2:8, 9, salvation is a past, completed act.


In 1 Corinthians 1:18, salvation is a present, continuous work.


In Hebrews 1:14, salvation is a future, inherited possession.


Since the Word of God presents salvation in a framework of this nature, it is vitally important in Scriptural interpretation to first ascertain to which of these three aspects of salvation any given passage pertains.


In the past aspect of salvation, dealt with in Ephesians 2:8, the words in the corrected text, “you have been saved,” are a translation of two Greek words that form what is called in the Greek text a “periphrastic perfect.”  The “perfect” tense refers to action completed in past time, with the results of this action extending into present time and existing in a finished state.  The “periphrastic” construction places additional emphasis on the present, finished state and refers to the persistent results during present time of the past, completed work.


Salvation in this verse is wrought by grace through faith, accomplished completely in past time, and is the present possession of every believer.  This present possession, in turn, constitutes an active, continuing, ever-abiding salvation.


The eternal security of the believer cannot be expressed in stronger terms than the periphrastic construction of the perfect tense in Ephesians 2:8, for the present results of the past action, in this case, can only continue unchanged forever.


However, in 1 Corinthians 1:18, dealing with the present aspect of salvation, things are presented in an entirely different light than seen in Ephesians 2:8.  Rather than the verb tense in the Greek text referring to a past, completed act, the tense refers to a present, continuous work.  The former has already been completed, but the latter has yet to be completed.


Then, in Hebrews 1:14, dealing with the future aspect of salvation, matters are presented in a completely different light yet.  The wording in the Greek text of this verse refers to something that is about to occur.  Nothing is past or present; the reception of this salvation, in its entirety, is placed in the future.


Further, the salvation referred to in Hebrews 1:14 is not only to be realized in the future, but it is also an inherited salvation.  And the thought of inheritance further distinguishes the salvation in this verse from the salvation previously seen in Ephesians 2:8, for the salvation that Christians presently possess is not an inherited salvation.


Rather, our present salvation was obtained as a free gift during the time we were alienated from God.  And, as aliens (outside the family of God), we were in no position to inherit salvation, for inheritance in Scripture is always a family matter.


In the Old Testament, “sons” were first in line to receive the inheritance, with “daughters” next.  If there were no sons or daughters in the immediate family, the inheritance was passed on to the nearest family member or members, designated by the law of inheritance (Numbers 27:8-11).


Consequently, an individual had to be a family member before he could be considered for the inheritance, which, during the present dispensation, is restricted to “children” or “sons” of the Owner.  That’s why the statement is made in Romans 8:17, “. . . if children, then heirs . . . .”  And that’s also why in Hebrews 1:14 that an inherited salvation pertains to those who have already been saved, those who are no longer alienated from God but are presently family members.


In this respect, the complete scope of salvation — past, present, and future — has a beginning point, with an end in view.  It involves the Spirit of God breathing life into the one having no life, effecting the birth from above.  And this has been done with a purpose, an end, in view.  This has been done so that the Spirit can take the one who now has spiritual life and perform a work in the life of that individual, with a view to an inheritance that will be realized at a future time.


Thus, one should immediately be able to see the importance of proper distinctions being drawn and observed in the realm of these three aspects of salvation.  And depending on how one approaches and deals with the different salvation passages in Scripture, difficulties can be avoided on the one hand or insurmountable problems can result on the other.


The Tripartite Nature of Man


Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. (1 Thessalonians 5:23)


Man is a tripartite being comprised of spirit, soul, and body; and the salvation of man within its complete scope (past, present, and future) pertains to the salvation of man with respect to his complete being.  In the study of Scripture it is revealed that each of these three parts of man is subject to salvation at different times.  Thus, to understand salvation in its complete scope, one must first understand certain things about man’s tripartite nature.  Then, salvation in relation to this tripartite nature becomes the issue.


The first chapter of Genesis reveals that man was created in the “image” and “likeness” of God.  The word translated “God” in the Hebrew text of this statement is Elohim.  This is a plural noun, which, in complete keeping with related Scripture, would include all three members of the Godhead — God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit (e.g., cf. John 1:1-3).


Since Elohim is a trinity, for man to be created in the “image” and “likeness” of God, he too must be a trinity.  Unlike the dichotomous animal kingdom (created apart from the “image” and “likeness” of God) possessing only bodies and souls, trichotomous man (created in the “image” and “likeness” of God) is a triune being.  Man not only possesses a body and a soul, but he also possesses a spirit as well.


Jesus is Elohim manifested in the flesh; and having been made in the “likeness” of man (but apart from man’s fallen nature), He, as man, must also be a trinity (John 1:14; Philippians 2:7).  This tripartite nature of Christ, in whom “dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily” (Colossians 2:9), was clearly revealed at the time of His death.


At this time Jesus yielded up His spirit, which went back into the presence of His Father in heaven (Luke 23:46; cf. Ecclesiastes 12:7; Acts 7:59); His soul went into Hades, the place of the dead, housed inside the earth at that time (Acts 2:27); and His body was removed from the Cross and placed in Joseph of Arimathaea’s tomb (Matthew 27:57-61).  This threefold separation persisted until the soul and spirit re-entered the body at the time Christ was raised from the dead.


Thus, God, Elohim, is a trinity; Jesus, Elohim manifested in the flesh, is likewise a trinity; and man, created in the “image” and “likeness” of Elohim, can only be a trinity as well.  Accordingly, a complete redemption provided by the triune God must, of necessity, pertain to man as a complete beingMans complete redemption must encompass spirit, soul, and body.


1)  Past, Present, Future . . . Spirit, Soul, Body


When man sinned in the garden in Eden, the complete being of man — spirit, soul, and body — became in a fallen state.  God had commanded Adam concerning the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, “you shall not eatfor in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die” (Genesis 2:17).  After Satan had deceived Eve into eating of the fruit of this tree, she then “gave to her husband with her, and he ate.” Immediately following this, “the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves coverings” (Genesis 3:1-7).


At the time of the fall, Adam and Eve lost something; and it is clearly stated in Scripture that both immediately recognized this fact.  That which they lost could only have been a covering of pristine glory that had previously clothed their bodies, for they, following the fall, found themselves in a twofold condition:


            1)  Naked.

            2)  Separated from God.


God is arrayed in a covering of “light,” connected with “honor and majesty.”  And man, created in the “image” and “likeness” of God, could only have been arrayed in a similar manner prior to the fall.


Bless the LORD, O my soul! O LORD my God, You are very great: You are clothed with [“You have put on”] honor and majesty. (Psalm 104:1)


Who cover Yourself with light as with a garment, who stretch out the heavens like a curtain. (Psalm 104:2)


Recognizing the loss of this covering, realizing that they were naked, explains why Adam and Eve immediately sought to clothe themselves following the fall.  They tried to replace the covering that had been lost with a work of their own hands, with fig leaf aprons.  And then, apparently realizing the utter inadequacy of this covering, they, in their fallen state, sought to hide from God.


God, finding Adam and Eve in this condition, completely rejected the works of their hands.  God completely rejected their feeble efforts to atone for their own sin by seeking to replace the covering of pristine glory with fig leaves.


Then, to bring His fallen creature back into a right relationship (although not in complete keeping with their previously un-fallen state — something still future even today), God provided a covering consisting of animal skins (Genesis 3:21).  This necessitated death and the shedding of blood; and herein lie basic, unchangeable truths concerning the state of fallen man and the means that are necessary to effect his redemption.


Unredeemed man is a fallen creature, alienated from God; and two things are necessary to effect his redemption:


            1)  Divine intervention.

            2)  Death and shed blood.


These truths have forever been set forth in the opening chapters of Genesis and can never change.


(Two different words are used for “naked” in the Hebrew text of Genesis 2:25 [before the fall] and Genesis 3:7 [after the fall].  In the latter [3:7], the word has to do with absolute nakedness, but not so in the former [2:25].


Remaining within the way a person dressed in the East at the time Moses wrote Genesis, and at later times as well, the word used relative to nakedness pertaining to Adam and Eve preceding the fall [2:25] could be used to describe a person clothed in a tunic [inner garment] but lacking the mantle or cloak [outer garment].  In the preceding respect, prior to the fall, Adam and Eve were clothed in the Glory of God but had yet to possess the regal outer garments worn by kings [fulfilling the reason for man’s creation — to rule the earth (Genesis 1:26-28)].


Then, following the fall, no longer clothed in the Glory of God, Adam and Eve were no longer in a position to be further clothed in regal garments, realizing the purpose for their creation.  They, apart from the inner garment [the Glory] could not wear the outer garments [royal apparel].


Adam, prior to the fall, never wore regal garments or held the scepter.  In this respect, he never moved beyond the description given in Genesis 2:25 — a “naked” condition, “naked in relation to the reason for his creation [lacking the outer regal garments].

Thus, if man, now separated from the Glory, is to ever fulfill the purpose for his creation, God must act.  Redemption has to occur; and this, of necessity, has to include the complete man — spirit, soul, and body — with a view to not only a restoration of the Glory but to regality beyond this restoration.)


a)  Spirit


Man’s sin in the garden in Eden produced death.  Man died the day he ate of the forbidden fruit.  Since his body continued to live, revealing that his soul — the life-giving principle in the blood (Leviticus 17:11; cf. Genesis 9:4) — remained unchanged with respect to life (natural life), it is evident that it was his spirit that died.


The spiritual nature is that part of man that links him directly with God.  “God is spirit,” and man’s worship of God must be “in spirit and truth” (John 4:24, NASB).  The death of Adam’s spirit separated him from God (establishing the primary meaning of “death” in Scripture — separation from God), and this death (this separation from God) “spread to all men” (Romans 5:12).


Scripture speaks of an unsaved person as being “dead in trespasses and sins” (Ephesians 2:1).  With an unredeemed, inanimate spirit (spiritually dead), he is alienated from God, separated from God (Ephesians 2:12).


But once the person has been born from above, he is then spoken of as having passedfrom death into life,” as having beenquickened [NKJV: ‘made us alive’]” (John 5:24; Ephesians 2:5).  Possessing an animate spirit, possessing spiritual life (having been made alive spiritually), he is no longer separated from the One who Himself is “Spirit” (John 4:24).


This aspect of salvation is brought to pass by the Spirit of God breathing life into the one having no life, based on Christ’s finished work at Calvary; and once this has been accomplished, everything surrounding the work effecting this aspect of salvation has been completed, with this work existing in a finished state as previously seen through the use of the perfect tense in Ephesians 2:8.


Thus, the salvation experience that man enters into at the time of the birth from above is a work of the Spirit, based on a previous work of the Son.  It is a spiritual birth and has to do with man’s spirit alone:  “. . . that which is born of the Spirit is spirit (John 3:6b).


b)  Soul


The salvation of the soul, on the other hand, should never be associated with the past aspect of salvation.  Scripture carefully distinguishes between the soul and the spirit, never using the words interchangeably in this respect (cf. 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Hebrews 4:12). 


And Scripture also carefully distinguishes between salvation in relation to the spirit and salvation in relation to the soul.  Salvation in relation to the spirit is always dealt with in a past sense, but not so with the salvation of the soul.  Rather, the salvation of the soul is always dealt with in a future sense:


            receiving the end of your faith -- the salvation of your souls. (1 Peter 1:9)


Therefore lay aside all filthiness and overflow of wickedness, and receive with meekness the implanted Word, which is able to save your souls. (James 1:21)


But we are not of those who draw back to perdition, but of those who believe [are faithful] to the saving of the soul. (Hebrews 10:39)


The statements and exhortations in these verses pertain to Christians alone — those whose spirits have already been saved and whose souls are in the process of being saved, with the salvation of the soul being realized only at a future time.


c)  Body


The salvation of the body presents very few problems for the majority of Christians.  Very few Christians contend, contrary to Scripture, that the body has either already been redeemed or is in the process of being redeemed.  Scripture places the redemption of man’s body entirely in the future (Romans 8:23).


The Christian’s body is presently in a continuous state of deterioration.  The body grows old and weakens with time; and the body is subject to sickness, disease, and eventually death.  This must ever remain the case as long as the body remains in its present state.  The “wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23), and the unredeemed body must pay the price that sin requires.


Within this unredeemed body lie two opposing entities, each seeking dominion — a redeemed spirit, and an unredeemed soul.  The unredeemed soul is housed in an unredeemed body, and the two are mutually compatible.  But the redeemed spirit housed alongside an unredeemed soul in an unredeemed body experiences no compatibility with either of the other two at all.  Compatibility is not possible, for “what fellowship has righteousness with lawlessness? And what communion has light with darkness?” (2 Corinthians 6:14)


This heterogeneous union is what produced the cry of the Apostle Paul in Romans 7:24,


            O wretched man that I amWho shall deliver me from this body of death?


(For information on the redemption of the body, refer to the appendix — “Adoption, Redemption of the Body” — in the author’s book, God’s Firstborn Sons)


2)  Soulical, Spiritual, Carnal


According to the Word of God, every man can be categorized as being either soulical, spiritual, or carnal.  The word “soulical” pertains to all non-Christians, and the words “spiritual” and “carnal” pertain to two classes of Christians.


a)  Soulical


But the natural man [the “soulical” man] does not receive the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; nor can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. (1 Corinthians 2:14)


The Greek word translated “soul” throughout the New Testament is psuche.  This word has to do with “the natural life” of the individual.  The soul is the seat of a person’s emotions, feelings, and desires pertaining to his man-conscious existence.  The Greek word translated “natural” in 1 Corinthians 2:14 is psuchikos, a form of the word psuche.  Psuchikos is the “natural” or “soulical” life (self-life) that man has in common with the animal kingdom.


The soulical man is dominated or ruled by his soul, which includes all the experiences, desires, emotions, sensations, likes, and dislikes within the personal, natural life of the individual.  Such likes, dislikes, etc. will vary from individual to individual, but all emanate from the soul-life of man.  The soulical man is alienated from God and, thus, possesses no way to grasp spiritual truth.  A man must be born from above — made alive spiritually — before he can possess spiritual discernment.


b)  Spiritual


And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual . . . . (1 Corinthians 3:1a)


The Greek word translated “spirit” throughout the New Testament is pneuma.  This word is used in the New Testament referring to the Holy Spirit, man’s spirit, angels (both fallen and un-fallen), a state of mind or disposition, wind, and breath.  Examples in Scripture of the last four are Luke 8:55; John 3:8; 1 Corinthians 4:21; 2 Timothy 1:7; Hebrews 1:7; 1 Peter 3:19.


Man’s spirit is the seat of the higher divine life pertaining to his God-conscious existence.  The Greek word translated “spiritual” in 1 Corinthians 3:1a is pneumatikos, a form of the word pneuma.  The spiritual man is one who is controlled by the Spirit of God acting through his own spirit (through a spirit made alive by the birth from above).


The spiritual man, unlike the soulical man, controls his emotions, feelings, and desires pertaining to his still-present, man-conscious existence.  He brings his unredeemed body under subjection and exerts control over the soulical man.  This, of course, is not performed within his own power, but within the power of the indwelling Holy Spirit.  This is an experience open to redeemed man alone, to an individual who has been made alive spiritually.


Unredeemed man, on the other hand, although a trichotomous being, fails to rise above the dichotomous animal kingdom in his natural or soulical existence.  He lacks a redeemed spirit with the accompanying, indwelling Holy Spirit.  He, with an inanimate spirit, is spiritually dead.  And, consequently, he remains alienated from God.  Thus, an existence outside the soulical (natural) for unredeemed man is not possible.


c)  Carnal


. . . but as to carnal, as to babes in Christ. (1 Corinthians 3:1b)


The Greek word translated “carnal” is sarkikos.  This is a form of the word sarx, which means “flesh.”  Sarkikos (fleshly) is the opposite of pneumatikos (spiritual).  The carnal Christian is, thus, “fleshly” as opposed to “spiritual.”  He is one who allows himself to be controlled by his soul rather than by the indwelling Holy Spirit.  He, as the soulical man (the unsaved man), follows his personal emotions, feelings, and desires.


He, however, unlike the soulical man, has been born from above and is capable of grasping spiritual truth.  But, unlike the spiritual man, this truth is not being received.  Thus, the carnal Christian, without an impartation of spiritual truth flowing into his saved human spirit, remains immature and fleshly, following the fleshly impulses of the soul.


(The use of “flesh” or “fleshly” in the preceding respect would be a direct allusion back to that which occurred in Eden at the time of the fall.  Man, following his fall, possessed a body that was no longer enswathed in a covering of Glory, with the exposed flesh openly demonstrating this fact.  This is what is meant by Christ coming “in the likeness of sinful flesh” [Romans 8:3].  Christ came to earth in a body not enswathed in the Glory of God.


This was the crux of the ignominy and shame surrounding the events of Calvary.  Not only was Christ’s body of flesh [apart from the covering of Glory] arrayed in a mock regal manner [with a robe and a crown of thorns], but He hung on the cross without even His Own garments to cover His body, for all to behold that which had been wrought by sin 4,000 years earlier — nakedness, and death [Matthew 27:27-36].


There though is nothing wrong with “flesh” per se.  Man was created in a body of flesh, Christ presently has a body of flesh, and both God’s Son and man will live in bodies of flesh forever.


But, though there is nothing wrong with a body of “flesh,” there is something wrong with a body of flesh that is not enswathed in the Glory of God.)


Within the scope of that which God reveals about the impartation of spiritual truth to redeemed man alone lies the great lesson concerning unredeemed man’s relationship to the Word of God.  It is utterly futile for unredeemed man to either himself attempt to understand the Word of God or for redeemed man to attempt to teach him the Word of God.  Scripture is “spiritually discerned,” and a man must be born from above — be made alive spiritually, which places him in a position where he can exercise spiritual discernment — before he can understand the things of the Spirit of God. 


The soulical (unredeemed) man, completely alienated from God — spiritually dead and in no position to exercise spiritual discernment — cannot understand spiritual things, and they appear to him as no more than “foolishness” (1 Corinthians 2:14).


(Unredeemed man can understand the letter of Scripture [i.e., the stories or accounts of events in Scripture, viewing them as he would a secular book].  But to take these stories or accounts of events and see the spiritual content that God has built into them is completely beyond his ability [cf. 2 Corinthians 3:6ff].  He simply cannot understand the things of the Spirit, for, spiritually, he is dead; he is alienated from God.)


Thus, herein also lies the reason why the things of the Spirit have been hidden from the “wise and prudent,” but revealed unto “babes” (cf. Matthew 11:25).  Certain Christian intelligentsia of the present dispensation, even though saved and in a position to understand the Word of God, too often seek spiritual discernment in the light of worldly wisdom rather than through comparing Scripture with Scripture and looking to the indwelling Spirit to lead theminto all truth” (John 16:13; 1 Corinthians 2:9-13).


And, although those Christians who seek spiritual discernment in this manner may often be looked upon as great spiritual leaders, theologians, expositors, etc., they, in the final analysis, cannot understand these things.  Such individuals can only be sadly lacking in the very realm where they are held in high esteem.


While at the same time, “babes” (Greek: nepios, those who are still on the milk of the Word and have not grown enough to even partake of solid food), by the leadership of the Spirit of God — as they compare Scripture with Scripture and look to the Spirit to lead theminto all truth” — can invariably be brought into an understanding of these things. 


They, by turning to the Word and looking to the Spirit for discernment and leadership, can understand more about these same spiritual truths than the “wise and prudent” who turn to places other than the Word and either ignore or reject the Spirit’s discernment and leadership.


Redeemed Man


Redeemed man, through a past and finished work of the Spirit, based on a past and finished work of Christ, has been brought from a dead to a living state spiritually.  He has passed “from death into life.”  And in this living state, he is now in a position to realize the purpose for his salvation — the salvation of his soul.


One aspect of salvation is past.  The individual presently possesses eternal life, and nothing can ever change or nullify this fact.  But the individual has been saved for a purpose, which will be brought to pass only within the framework of his realizing present and future aspects of salvation.


And this complete panorama of the salvation message, with a purpose in view, must be recognized.  Redeemed man must recognize that there is not only a past aspect to salvation but present and future aspects as well.  And the present and future aspects of salvation are inseparably connected with man one day being brought into a realization of the purpose for which he was created in the beginning — “. . . let them have dominion” (Genesis 1:26-28).  Present and future aspects of salvation have to do with man occupying regal positions following the time when he, in that coming day, is brought into a realization of the salvation of his soul.


1)  The Complete Salvation Issue


In order to effect man’s eternal redemption, the Spirit of God deals with unsaved man on one basis alone.  The Spirit deals with unsaved man solely on the basis of Christs finished work at Calvary.


But once an individual has believed on the Lord Jesus Christ and has been dealt with on the basis of Christ’s finished work, realizing the birth from above — the salvation of his spirit — the salvation issue then shifts from the salvation of his spirit, to the salvation of his soul.  The salvation of the spirit becomes a past, completed work and is never dealt with as an issue beyond this point.  The Spirit of God, from this point forward, deals with the individual solely on the basis of present and future aspects of salvation.  The individual, from this point forward, is dealt with in relation to the salvation of his soul.

Thus, all Scriptures dealing with carnality or unfaithfulness of Christians, resulting in forfeiture or loss, MUST pertain to issues surrounding the salvation of the soul, NEVER to issues surrounding the salvation of the spirit.


Once the salvation of the spirit has been effected, making it possible for the indwelling Spirit of God to impart spiritual truth into and control an individual’s life through his own spirit, then man’s unredeemed soul occupies the center of attention.  And salvation now (in relation to the soul, not the spirit) becomes dependent on the actions of the individual.

Salvation now becomes dependent on the life one lives after his spirit has been saved.  Salvation now becomes dependent on the individual allowing the Spirit of God to impart spiritual truth into and control his life through his own spirit.


An individual allowing the Spirit of God to impart spiritual truth into and control his life through his own spirit progressively grows from immaturity to maturity.  He progressively grows into a spiritually mature Christian.  Growing in this manner, he exerts control over his emotions, feelings, and desires pertaining to his man-conscious (soulical) existence.  And, by this means, he will ultimately come into a realization of the salvation of his soul (life).


On the other hand, an individual who refuses to allow the Spirit of God to impart spiritual truth into and control his life in the preceding manner can only remain a carnally immature Christian.  Apart from the assimilation of spiritual truth, resulting in spiritual growth, he cannot help but be controlled by his emotions, feelings, and desires pertaining to his man-conscious (soulical) existence.  And, accordingly, such a person will ultimately suffer the loss of his soul (life), which can have no bearing whatsoever on his eternal salvation (for that is a past, finished matter which has already been dealt with).


2)  The Complete Salvation Message


The shift of the salvation issue from the spirit to the soul at the time of the birth from above necessitates a corresponding shift from the salvation message that is to be proclaimed to the unsaved (which concerns the salvation of the spirit) to the salvation message that is to be proclaimed to the saved (which concerns the salvation of the soul).  This must ever be the case, for that which is past ceases to be the issue, and that which is present and future becomes the issue.


The only message to be carried to the unsaved is the gospel of grace.  This is the good news that “Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures.”  This message alone forms the basis upon which the Spirit can breathe life into the one having no life (1 Corinthians 15:3; cf. 1 Corinthians 2:1, 2).


But once the unsaved individual has believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, experiencing the birth from above, the message must then change, for the goal of the message will have been realized.  The Spirit must then deal with the individual on an entirely different plane, with the issue at the forefront no longer being the salvation of the spirit, but the salvation of the soul.


Thus, a minister with a congregation placed under his care has been charged with a tremendous responsibility.  His central ministry is among the saved, among those capable of grasping spiritual truth; and he is to disseminate spiritual truth to these individuals as it relates to things surrounding present and future aspects of salvation, not to things surrounding the past aspect of salvation.  He, in this manner, is to “feed the flock of God,” looking ahead to Christ’s appearance in all His glory (1 Peter 5:2-4).


This individual is responsible, under the leadership of the Spirit of God, to provide proper spiritual nourishment for those Christians placed under his care.  And the only thing that God has provided for him to use as he feeds the flock of God is the Word of God.


As a minister in charge of a flock, he is to expound this Word under the leadership of the Holy Spirit.  And Christians placed under his care are to receive this proclaimed Word into their saved human spirits.  Then the Spirit of God can take this “implanted Word” and effect spiritual growth to maturity, with the end result being the salvation of their souls (James 1:21).


The tragedy in Christian circles today is the light regard that pastors of churches have for fulfilling the very purpose for their ministry.  And, the end result of pastors failing to properly “feed the flock” entrusted to their care will be the entrance of innumerable carnal, immature Christians into the Lord’s presence at the end of the present dispensation with redeemed spirits, changed bodies, but wasted and thus unredeemed souls — forfeited lives.  Their eternal salvation will remain unaffected; but, with the forfeiture or loss of their souls, they will be unable to realize the inheritance presently “reserved in heaven” for the faithful.  Consequently, they will occupy no position among the “many sons” who will be brought to glory.


(The subject surrounding pastor-teachers and each having been entrusted with a flock, with a view to the salvation of not only the souls of the pastor-teachers but the souls of those in their flocks as well, is developed more fully in Chapter 8 of this book.)


Concluding Thoughts


Failure to understand and distinguish between the salvation that we presently possess and the salvation to be revealed when our Lord returns has wrought untold confusion in Christian circles.


Many Christians take Scriptures dealing with the salvation to be revealed and seek to apply them to the salvation that we presently possess.  And misapplying Scripture in this manner, these individuals arrive at the erroneous conclusion that it is possible for a saved person to be lost, which not only casts reproach upon the sufficiency of the finished work of Christ at Calvary, but also does violence to numerous portions of the Word of God.


Then, on the other hand, there are those Christians who recognize that the loss of one’s eternal salvation is not possible, but still fail to understand distinctions between the salvation of the spirit and the salvation of the soul.  Most from this group take many of these same verses and seek to either apply them to the nation of Israel or to unregenerate individuals, whether Jew or Gentile.  And applications of this nature not only remove the Spirit’s exhortations and warnings to redeemed individuals, but erroneous interpretations in one area of Scripture will often, for the sake of consistency, lead to erroneous interpretations in other areas.


Thus, the importance of understanding distinctions between the salvation of the spirit and the salvation of the soul becomes self-evident.


Let it be forever stated:  Redeemed man has come into a position from which he can never be removed.  But this same redeemed man, in this position, is directly responsible to his Creator; and, at a future date, he will either inherit as a joint-heir with his Lord or suffer loss in the presence of his Lord.  The former will be realized through the salvation of his soul, or the latter will, instead, be realized through the loss of his soul.