The Typical Meaning of the Jordan River
by Roel Velema of the Netherlands
In the Old Testament, beginning with Genesis chapter one,
God has set forth numerous word pictures to teach about the person
and work of Christ — past, present, and future.
foundational type is laid down in the Exodus of the children
of Israel from Egypt and their subsequent journey to the promised
land of their inheritance. This type is nearly inexhaustible in its
teaching concerning both Israel and Christians. This type covers the
whole journey from Egypt to Canaan, as it also describes the future
redemption of the nation of Israel. But the type is also applicable
to the Christian. The events in Egypt describe the aspects
surrounding our eternal salvation, through the death and shed blood
of an innocent other. The Red Sea points to baptism all in view of a
promised heavenly land.
However, there is one significant event in this important type —
namely, the typical meaning of the Jordan — which is rarely
accorded proper emphasis, though it is of great importance.
Christians would greatly profit if they were as familiar with the
typical meaning of the Jordan as they are with the typical meaning
of the Red Sea.
The Jordan as a type shows that the promised land could not be
entered without crossing the Jordan:
“For you are about to cross the Jordan to go in to possess the
land that the LORD your God is giving you, and you shall possess it
and live in it,” (cf. Deuteronomy 11:31).
When you cross the Jordan and live in the land that the LORD your
God is giving you to inherit, and He gives you rest from all your
enemies around you so that you live in security,” (cf.
“So it shall be on the day when you cross the Jordan to the land
that the LORD your God gives you, that you shall set up for yourself
large stones and coat them with lime” (cf. Deuteronomy 27:2).
The means of entering the Promised Land was by crossing the Jordan.
Just as the Israelites couldn’t leave Egypt, except by passing
through the Red Sea, Scripture does not provide a way to enter the
Promised Land apart from crossing the Jordan. And what is true in
the “type,” must also be true in the “antitype.” The Christian
cannot enter the kingdom of the heavens without crossing the
“Jordan” in its true, correct typical meaning. And it is this
typical meaning that we shall deal with in this study.
First-mention of the “Jordan”
lifted up his eyes and saw all the valley of the Jordan, that it was
well watered everywhere — this was before the LORD destroyed Sodom
and Gomorrah — like the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt
as you go to Zoar. So Lot chose for himself all the valley of the
Jordan, and Lot journeyed eastward. Thus they separated from each
other” (cf. Genesis 13:10, 11).
Genesis 13:10, 11
provides a first-mention of the “Jordan” from the east. The text
associates the Jordan and its valley with fruitfulness. A
distinction is also made between the east side, the west side, and
their separation. This distinction had to do with Lot – the man of
flesh – and Abraham – the spiritual man. For one to enter the
Promised Land he was to cross the Jordan to the west side. But the
Ruebenites, who lost their rights of the firstborn, had to stay,
along with the Gadites on the east side of the river.
The first-mention of the “Jordan” immediately shows its typical
meaning. It has to do with matters of flesh and spirit. For the
Christian, the matters of the flesh and spirit have to do with what
the New Testament calls the “salvation of the soul” (cf. Matthew
16:25; John 12:25; James 1:21).
All of God’s dealings with Christians (allowing us to realize the
salvation of our souls) will, typically, begin to occur only after
passing through the Red Sea, on the east side of Jordan. And only a
continuing, on-going process having to do with the saving of the
soul in one’s life, will allow us to cross the Jordan from the east
to the west side of the river.
The Geography of the Jordan
The Jordan depression has unique geographical features. It runs its
course from its multiple river sources from Mount Hermon to Lake
Huleh. From Lake Huleh to the Sea of Galilee is about 10 miles (16
kilometres), and the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is about 65
miles (105 kilometres). From its beginning in the north to its
terminus at the Dead Sea, the river drops tremendously – a drop of
about 2,380 feet (393 meters). Due to its winding course, the river
itself, actually measures nearly 200 miles (325 kilometres), over
twice its direct distance.
The name “Jordan” (Hebrews yarden
means “the descender”. The name is connected with the Hebrew verb
which means “to come or go down”. The verb is very common in Hebrew,
such as in Exodus 32:1: “…when Moses came down from
mount Sinai”. But in its typical meaning – dealing with matters
of flesh and spirit – we see the same word used:
“And I have trodden down the peoples in mine anger, and made them
drunk in my fury; and their blood have I brought down to the
earth” (cf. Isaiah 63:6).
“Therefore thus says the Lord God: An adversary! — even
round about the land! And he shall bring down your strength
from you, and your palaces shall be pillaged” (Amos 3:11).
“A wise man scales the city of the mighty and brings down the
stronghold in which they trust” (Proverbs 21:22).
In all these three verses, we see that “bringing down” is associated
with bringing down the strength of man. This is illustrated even
more through the names of two perennial streams on the east side of
the Jordan: the Jabbok and the Cherith, east of the Jordan. The
Jabbok appears 7 times in the Old Testament (cf. Genesis 32:22;
Numbers 21:24; Deuteronomy 2:37; 3:16; Joshua 12:2; Judges 11:13, 22),
and the Cherith two times (cf. 1 Kings 17:3, 5).
The word “Jabbok” means “emptying”. The word is derived from the
Hebrew verb baqaq
which means “to empty”. It refers to the fact that the Jabbok
empties into the Jordan from the east.
The word “Cherith” means “cutting”. The word is derived from the
Hebrew verb karat
which means “to cut off, to cut down”.
When we link these meanings, the Jordan, the “Descender”, bringing
down one’s strength, in connection with “emptying” and “cutting”, we
can see very clearly that experiences surrounding the crossing of
the Jordan are specifically typical, with a view of one day
realizing, the salvation of the soul.
First-mention of the “Jabbok”
The Jabbok is first mentioned in Genesis 32:22:
“Now he arose that same night and took his two wives and his two
maids and his eleven children, and crossed the ford of the Jabbok.”
deals with the wrestling of Jacob with the Lord. The natural
strength of Jacob was broken, and Jacob was renamed Israel. Again we
see that the Jordan of its perennial streams point to the breaking,
the emptying and the cutting down of the natural man, which has
everything to do with the salvation of the soul.
First-mention of the Brook “Cherith”
The Cherith is first mentioned in 1 Kings 17:3:
“Go away from here and turn eastward, and hide yourself by the
brook Cherith, which is east of the Jordan”
The context of this verses deals with Elijah, also in connection
with an “emptying” and a “cutting”.
The Red Sea and the Jordan as Types
It is very important to see that there is a difference in typical
meaning between the Red Sea and the Jordan. Both types commonly
share the fact that they are two sides of one cross. Both symbolize
the spiritual death and resurrection of the believer, but the Jordan
carries it into another realm. It is of the utmost importance to
understand this distinction.
The Red Sea points to the substitutionary death and the positional
identification of the believer in Christ’s death and resurrection.
The wilderness is the revelation of the need for the Jordan, the
experiential identification with Christ in His death and
The Jordan points to the practical application of deliverance from
the self-life. When the Israelites crossed
the Jordan, they left a monument of twelve stones, typifying the
Israelites themselves, buried in the bed of the river, indicating
the practical ending of the self-life. And then another memorial of
twelve stones was taken from the bed of the river and placed on the
shore of Canaan, typifying, not only the newness of life through
resurrection, but also to an everlasting and practical separation by
Newness of life is always received in resurrection, which is
typified by the Israelites rising from the Red Sea. But there is a
sense in which Israel, even when they were out of Egypt, were not
out. They constantly longed to go back to Egypt; Egypt was in their
hearts. Not until they passed through the Jordan, were they really
out of Egypt. The Jordan typifies the cross that dealt with the
Israelites in an inward way. The Red Sea represented what God did
for the Israelites, while the Jordan was a type of a work
consummated in them. When a Christian comes to knowledge of the Word
of the Kingdom and starts to apply this knowledge, he in fact has
crossed the Jordan. This type of Christian has decided to loose his
soul in order to save it, which means nothing less than the decision
to apply the cross in a subjective way. This also shows that the
Word of the Cross is a part of the Word of the Kingdom.
After we have come to the blessings of the substitutionary work of
Christ, sooner or later we will learn how wide the gap is between
the old creation and the new creation, between the natural life and
the spiritual life. At the Jordan the Lord Jesus was baptized, which
signifies that He didn’t start His ministry out of Himself, but out
of the Father.
And what happened then? The heavens opened and the Spirit descended.
Everything was by the Spirit. The Lord Jesus stepped into His public
ministry after (only subsequent to) the Jordan, where He accepted
the cross as the basis of His ministry.
The first issue in His public ministry was the temptation of the
devil in the wilderness, just as the first issue of the Israelites
after applying the cross was a confrontation with the inhabitants of
the Promised Land. A person’s personal spiritual conflict is in
exact proportion to his apprehension of the cross.
The secret of our Lord’s walk lies in the fact that in the Jordan He
had entered the real meaning of the cross, and was able to say, “Not
My will” (Luke 22:42). Everything personal was set aside.
This is the way of our Lord, and this is the way for us as His
It is of the
utmost importance to see that the Jordan is not a repeated and
extended type of the Red Sea. The difference between the Red Sea and
the Jordan as types is as vast as the difference between the
objective side and the subjective side of the cross.
It is also
important to see that the second generation of Jews who enter the
promised land were already looked upon as being delivered from
Egypt: “for the LORD our God
is He who brought us and our fathers up out of the land of Egypt,
from the house of bondage, and who did these great signs in our
sight and preserved us through all the way in which we went and
among all the peoples through whose midst we passed” (Joshua
is interesting, because it shows that not only the Lord looked upon
the first generation as delivered from Egypt, but also the second
generation. So there is really no need to look upon the Jordan as a
renewed Red Sea because this second generation didn’t cross the
water of the Red Sea personally. The Red Sea is the Red Sea and the
Jordan is the Jordan. So there is really no problem in seeing the
second generation as having gone all the way, in type, as the first
generation (deliverance from slavery, the Paschal Lamb, the journey
through the wilderness up to Kadesh-Barnea). All through the Old
Testament Israel — all its generations — is seen as delivered from
Egypt (cp. Micah 6:4).
conclusion would be that the first generation could never have
entered the land except by crossing the Jordan. Likewise, a
Christian cannot enter the Promised Land solely on basis of the
objective death of Christ. Even though the first generation had
received the Law and had the Tabernacle, this never guarantied the
entrance into the Promised Land. There is only one thing that will
ever link us to our inheritance and that’s the personal and
collective application of the cross. There is no other way.
If the first
generation was to ever enter the land, they had to pass the Jordan,
in spite of the fact that they had already passed through the Red
Sea. The objective never guaranties the subjective. The first
generation didn’t enter the land because it refused to apply the
cross in a subjective and practical way. The first generation under
Moses was not in a position to enter the land at Kadesh-Barnea,
because they had not accepted the cross as the Lord had accepted the
cross at the Jordan. Hence the Lord didn’t allow the Israelites to
cross the Jordan.
generation – seen by the Lord as having crossed the Red Sea – are
looked upon as being in a position willing to apply the cross. They
entered the land, not because they had the tabernacle in an
objective way, but because they were willing to apply the typical
meaning of the Ark of the Covenant in a personal way. In the
wilderness the pattern of the tabernacle was given. In the land the
pattern is worked out subjectively. In the wilderness Christ is set
before us as the pattern and the basis of life.
Once we have
crossed the Jordan and have entered the land, an immense change
takes place. The pattern is replaced by the reality and the
subjective ads to the objective. Before we cross the Jordan we may
emphasize teaching and understanding of Scripture, though it may all
be in an objective way. But once we cross the Jordan it will dawn
upon us that the reality of all Bible teaching is to become the
embodiment of the Scriptures.
change our attitude to the Scriptures for ever. It will also be a
change from the earthly to the heavenly. The heavenly life with
Christ is to know the resurrection life in Christ. The Lord
challenges us to know the Scriptures, but we also have to know the
power of God, the power of His resurrection (cp. Matthew 22:29).
The Promised Land as Type
As soon as the Israelites had crossed the Jordan, the Israelites
were circumcised at Gilgal. The big difference between Israel in the
wilderness and Israel in the land is the difference between Israel
in a carnal state and Israel in a conquest and victorious state,
because the flesh had been cut off in the Jordan and set aside at
Gilgal. They were now a people in the Spirit, just as the Lord had
received the Spirit at the Jordan.
It is important to see that the book of Joshua parallels the letters
of Paul to the Ephesians and Colossians. These letters don’t
describe a present millennial entrance in to the kingdom of the
heavens, but a present spiritual warfare with the powers of
What is the purpose of these letters? Well, it is the purpose of
crossing the Jordan, which is a type of our subjective
identification with Christ in death, burial and resurrection.
The Red Sea says: “Christ died for you and you died with Him”
(Romans 6). The Jordan says: “Because you died with Him,
let sin no longer reign in your mortal bodies”. The great
purpose of crossing the Jordan is Ephesians 4:13: “…
fulness of Christ”
The Promised Land provides a dual type. The land of Canaan presents
a type of the present warfare of the Christian and a type of the
coming millennial kingdom. So this land represents a type of the
kingdom of the heavens from which the powers of darkness presently
operate. It presents a type of the heavenly Promised Land that a
Christian can inherit during the millennium.
Our warfare is
against the inhabitants of the land, which can’t be fought, as seen
in Ephesians 6, from the wilderness. Note that the
inheritance has to be preceded by the battle. And some will not
realize this inheritance, though in the land, with the opposition at
hand. A Christian can be overcome rather than to overcome. An
example in the type would be the battle of Ai. It is God’s purpose
that we stay in the wilderness as short as possible and cross the
Jordan as soon as possible. Unfortunately, most Christians today are
in no position to enter into the land and battle the giants. They
are someplace in the wilderness short of Kadesh-Barnea.
The Jordan River: a Type of the Salvation of the Soul
and 4 give an account of the nation of Israel crossing the
Jordan, as a type of the saving of the soul, a type of the
subjective application of the cross of Christ.
In advance of crossing the Jordan, Joshua rose early in the morning
(Joshua 3:1), pointing to his readiness and watchfulness to
cross the Jordan. In Scripture, men of God were, without exception,
early risers in order to meet God before they met men. We should be
saturated with the Lord’s presence before the Lord can bless others
with what He has worked in us.
At the end of three days the time had come to cross the Jordan, and
the process was as follows. The priests, carrying the ark of the
covenant, would step into the Jordan. When the soles of the feet of
the priests would rest in the waters, the waters of the Jordan would
be cut off, and the water flowing down from above would stand in one
heap (Joshua 3:13). The priests would walk up to the middle
of the river to stand there firm on the dry ground, until the nation
finished crossing the river (Joshua 3:17). After the people
had crossed the Jordan, twelve stones had to be taken from the
middle of the river, where the priests stood, to taken with them as
a remembrance of crossing the river (Joshua 4:3). Joshua also
put twelve stones on the place where the priests had stood, also as
a remembrance. The twelve stones taken with them, were set up in
Gilgal (Joshua 4:20).
The events around the Jordan and the Ark of the Covenant in
particular are the elements that form a basic type of the salvation
of the soul in the Old Testament. The salvation of the soul points
to a future saving of the soul in connection with a present denial
of the soul life or natural life. It implies a present determination
to reject the carnal life. It happened so when Israel passed through
the Jordan, and forever parted with the carnal life.
The Jordan in type spoke of death in Christ to the carnal life,
which was so predominant in the wilderness. The Jordan drew the line
between the Israelites carnally and their life spiritually. And now
they typically were on spiritual ground. Achan contradicts that when
the carnal life broke out again, but the result was a quick and
radical judgement. Things once done in the flesh were not tolerated
anymore. The events around the Jordan and the Ark of the Covenant in
particular are the elements that form a basic type of the salvation
of the soul in the Old Testament.
The Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant was central in crossing the river.
Firstly, let us make some general remarks about the Ark of the
Covenant. The word ark (of covenant) is related to a Hebrew word
which is a common name for a coffin or chest (Genesis 50:26; 2
Kings 12:9-10). However the addition to the word ark is the
following: “ark of God” (1 Samuel 3:3), “ark of the covenant”
(Joshua 3:6; Hebrews 9:4), “ark of testimony” (Exodus
25:22), and the “ark” in connection with “glory” (1 Samuel
The ark was made of acacia or shittim wood and covered with the
purest gold. Note that in Joshua 3:1 the nation set out from
Shittim, which is also called “Abel-Shittim” (Numbers 33:49).
It was the same places from which Joshua sent two spies secretly to
view the land (Joshua 2:1). To enter the land, is first to
study and spy the land.
The upper surface or lid of the ark, the mercy-seat, was surrounded
with a rim of gold, and on each of the two sides were two gold
rings, in which were placed two gold-covered poles by which the ark
could be carried (Numbers 7:9; 10:21; 4:5, 19-20; 1 Kings 8:3,6).
At each end, there were two cherubim over the ark, with their faces
turned toward each other (Leviticus 16:2; Numbers 7:89).
Their outspread wings over the top of the ark formed the throne of
God, while the ark itself was his footstool (Exodus 25:10-22;
37:1-9). The ark was deposited in the “holy of holies”, and was
placed so that one end of the carrying poles touched the veil that
separated the two sections of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8).
Stored in the ark were the ten commandments on two tablets of stone,
which were the testimony or evidence of God’s covenant with the
people (Deuteronomy 31:26), the pot of “manna” (Exodus
16:33), and Aaron’s rod that budded (Numbers 17:10; Hebrews
After Israel settled in the land, the ark remained in the tabernacle
at Gilgal for a while. It was then moved to Shiloh till the
time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years (Jeremiah 7:12), when
it was carried into the field of battle in an attempt to guarantee
victory. However, it was taken by the Philistines (1 Samuel
4:3-11), who returned it after seven months when they realized
it was bringing a curse on them (1 Samuel 5:7-8). The ark
then remained at Kirjath-jearim (7:1-2) until the time of
David (twenty years), who wished to move it to Jerusalem; but
because they did not move it in the proper way, Uzzah was killed for
putting “forth his hand to the ark of God.” Therefore, the ark was
left in the house of Obed-Edom in Gath-Rimmon for three months (2
Samuel 6:1-11), after which David moved it in a grand procession
to Jerusalem, where it was kept till a place was prepared for it
Solomon later deposited the ark in the great temple he built (1
Kings 8:6-9). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and
plundered the temple, the ark disappeared. Some believe it was taken
away by Nebuchadnezzar and was destroyed at some point. No definite
later trace of it has ever been found.
In crossing the Jordan, the ark went ahead with 2,000 cubits of
spaces between the it and the crowd. The number 2,000 in general
refers in Scripture to something sufficient, in this case a
sufficient and safe distance (cp. Joshua 7:3; 1 Samuel 13:2; 2
The ark represented both the presence, nature, and purpose of the
And because all purposes of God are bound up with/in Christ, the Ark
of the Covenant is also a type of Christ Himself. In realizing the
salvation of the soul, we receive participation in the presence,
nature, and purpose of the Lord. To be a co-heir with Christ is to
participate in Christ and His millennial reign. It is to participate
in the nature of the Lord, which can be seen in the budded rod of
the Aaron. This rod speaks of resurrection life.
Twelve stones were taken to the Promised Land, and twelve stones
were laid in the middle of the Jordan. Before the judgment seat the
overcomer will hear: “Well done, good and faithful slave”,
which will be a powerful motivation in our present spiritual walk
and a remembrance to the overcomers during the whole of the
millennium. The non-overcomers will also have a remembrance: the “weeping
and gnashing of teeth.” To have, during the millennium, a
greater part in the presence, the nature, and the purpose of God in
connection with the glory of God is the essence of the salvation of
The aim of this study is to lay a foundation for one to see that the
Jordan is a type of the saving of the soul through the subjective
application of the cross. This type should become just as familiar
to us as the Red Sea is a type of baptism.
closer look should be taken at the three items in the Ark of the
Covenant. Stored in the ark were the ten commandments on two tablets
of stone, which were the testimony or evidence of God’s covenant
with the people (Deuteronomy 31:26), the pot of “manna” (Exodus
16:33), and Aaron’s rod that budded (Numbers 17:10; Hebrews
The Two Tablets of Stone
The two tablets of stone set forth God’s mind and His will for us.
Dispensationally the Christian has nothing to do with the Law of
Moses. Yet as a type, 2 Corinthians 3:3 shows us that we are
letters of Christ, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the
living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of our human
hearts. The context of the whole chapter has to do with the
metamorphosis from a carnal to a Spirit-led state, which takes
place in the Christian’s life upon his digestion of the “meat” of
The Budded Rod of Aaron
The budded rod points to resurrection, to the power of His
resurrection. In Philippians 3:10,11 we read:
“that I may know Him and the power of His resurrection and
the fellowship of His sufferings, being conformed to His death; in
order that I may attain to the resurrection from the dead.”
fellowship of the sufferings of Christ, a crucified life, which
makes room for the life of Christ and the power of His resurrection,
through which we come to know Him, is the whole process of our
spiritual growth, which will ultimately lead to the out-resurrection
from the dead. And that’s exactly what the type in Joshua 3
and 4 teaches.
The Pot of Manna
The manna points to the heavenly provision in our Christian life.
The manna deals with the matter of food for the Christian. In
John 6:53-56 the Lord taught that we abide in Christ by eating
His flesh and drinking His blood:
“So Jesus said to them,
‘Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son
of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in yourselves. He who
eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise
him up on the last day. For My flesh is true food, and My blood is
true drink. He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me,
and I in him’.”
What does it mean to eat His flesh and to drink His blood? That’s
also what the Jews argued about: “How can this man give us His
flesh to eat?” (vs. 52). Of course we cannot literally
eat His flesh and drink His blood. The answer is to be found in 1
Corinthians 1:30 where Christ became everything to us,
not pieces and without permanent satisfaction as with the feeding of
the 5,000. Christ is everything to us; He is the great “I am”:
am the bread of life (John 6:35, 48).
am the light of the world (John 8:12).
am the door of the sheep (John 10:7).
am the good Shepherd (John 10:10).
am the resurrection and the life (John 11:25).
am the way, de truth and the life (John 14:6).
am the true vine (John 15:1, 5).
Taking all these three items together: 1) spiritual food, 2) the
metamorphosis, and 3) the power of Christ’s resurrection; we see
that the “salvation of the soul” (its realization) deals with these
three issues. The power of Christ’s resurrection emanates from the
application of the cross from day to day. The natural life will then
be set aside and Christ, our spiritual food, will become our life.
This will effect the metamorphosis in our lives. We cannot say that
the mere study of Scripture will effect the metamorphosis. This will
only occur in connection with the application of the cross in our
lives, simply because the Spirit of God always works on basis of the
cross. The cross leads to the Spirit and the Spirit leads to the
cross. That is the typical meaning of the Jordan.
What is the salvation of the soul? It is nothing less than reaching
the end or outcome of our faith (1 Peter 1:9), which means to
receive an inheritance reserved for us in heaven (1 Peter 1:5).
It means to be part of the bride of Christ. This bride will be in an
intimate relationship with the Bridegroom and will have part in His
work through eternity. This is really a gospel to the believer.
Nothing can be compared to this, and there is nothing in this world
that can be viewed as worthy of competing with this. We should never
separate the salvation of the soul from a deep passion to our Lord.
Teachings surrounding the salvation of the soul can, if one is not
watchful, easily become another doctrine in itself – i.e., just
another doctrine among many within one’s own thinking. But advance
in the Christian life is far more than just advance in doctrine. The
most attractive Christian is one who is strong in the knowledge of
the Scriptures and who is rich in resurrection life with our Lord.
The fullness that springs up from our inheritance has to do with the
very purpose of our existence: the exaltation of the Son of God to
the throne. This is our vocation and it involves our deep, personal
relationship with our Lord, borne out of His deep dealings and
involvement with us.
Therefore, the Christian life is above all a personal relationship
with the Lord. But this personal relationship will ever show the
insurmountable difference between the Lord and us. He is so
different, so spiritual, that we always can be in despair to know
Him fully. In fact, we will need eternity to come into a complete
and full practical knowledge of Him.
The salvation of the soul requires the living of a crucified life
(our present salvation) in order to share in Christ’s coming glory
during the coming Messianic kingdom of a thousand years (our future
salvation). To be in a position to rule and reign with our Lord
then, there has to be a present training in which we move from the
natural to the spiritual through the subjective work of the cross of
Christ. The whole matter of the salvation of the soul, which
emanates from living a crucified life, involves our present
salvation in view of our future salvation. The Jordan River is a
type of it. Our heavenly food (the written Word and Living Word),
the power of Christ’s resurrection, and the metamorphosis, can be
summarized as the antitype of the Jordan River.
©2007 Roel Velema