One Key to Scripture Interpretation
(One of Some)
The following presentation is a reproduction of
chapter one of The Study of Scripture by Arlen L. Chitwood,
The Lamp Broadcast, Inc., 2629 Wyandotte Way, Norman, OK 73071,
2005, which is the preeminent book on hermeneutics (interpretive
principles) existing today. Its author is Arlen L. Chitwood of The
Lamp Broadcast, Inc. of Norman, Oklahoma. The remainder of this
work and other studies by Mr. Chitwood, along with his e-mail
address, may be obtained from his website—all are encouraged to
avail themselves of the wealth of material at
In the beginning God...
The Book of the generation of
Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham
In the beginning was the Word,
and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (John 1:1).
The Old Testament opens with the statement, “In
the beginning God created the heaven
[‘heavens'] and the earth”; and the Gospel of John
opens with a parallel simple statement, “In
the beginning was the Word...All things were made by him...”
Both references go back to the same point in time—the beginning of
God's creative activity relative to the heavens and the earth.
The first five verses of Genesis can be paralleled with the first
five verses of John's gospel. But, beginning with verse six, John
moves millenniums ahead and continues with events during his day,
though he still continues to reference events of prior days.
The Gospel of Matthew, opening the New Testament, immediately
references the Old Testament after another fashion – “The
book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of
And in Luke's gospel, the matter of Christ's genealogy is carried
all the way back to Adam (3:23-38).
The Old Testament leads into the New after an inseparable
fashion. The latter forms a continuation and completion of that
which was begun in the former; and both together constitute one
continuous, complete revelation which God gave to man over a
period of about 1,500 years through some forty different Jewish
writers, revealing His plans and purposes in relation to man, the
earth, and the universe at large.
Consequently, one must be understood in the light of the other,
apart from precedence given to either. It is no more or no less
valid to interpret the Old Testament in the light of the New as it
is to interpret the New Testament in the light of the Old. One is
interpreted either in the light of itself (other parts of the same
Testament) or in the light of the other (the New in the light of the
Old, or the Old in the light of the New).
The interpretative method laid down in Scripture is very simple:
“...not in the words which man's
wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches; comparing
spiritual things with spiritual” (1 Corinthians 2:13).
One part of the Word (at any point in the Old
or New Testaments) is compared with another part of the Word (at any
point in the Old or New Testaments) under the leadership of the
Then, again, many of the distinctions which Christians often view
between the Old and New Testaments simply do not exist. A basis for
calling the two parts of Scripture by these names could be derived
from verses such as 2 Corinthians
3:6, 14; but to see one Testament as Jewish and the other
as Christian, as is often done, is about as far removed from
Biblical reality as one can get.
The word “testament” is a translation of the Greek word for
covenant (diatheke). The word appears thirty-three times
in the New Testament, and, in the KJV, it has been rendered
“covenant” twenty times and “testament” the other thirteen (cf.
Hebrews 9:4, 15). Either translation is correct so
long as one understands that the thought has to do with two
And confusion often arises at this point through the erroneous
thought that the new covenant has been made with the Church. That
simply is incorrect. Covenants are not made with the Church. They
never have been, and they never will be.
Since the call of Abraham 4,000 years ago, God, within His covenant
relationship to mankind, concerns Himself with one nation alone—the
nation of Israel (Romans 9:4).
The old covenant was made with the house of Israel during the days
of Moses, and the new covenant will be made with the house of Israel
when the One greater than Moses returns (Hebrews 8:7ff; cf.
During the interim, Christians are ministers of the new covenant in
the sense that the shed blood of Christ is the blood of this
covenant and the entire basis for any Christian's ministry has to do
with this blood—blood shed at Calvary, presently on the mercy seat
in the Holy of Holies of the heavenly tabernacle (Matthew
26:28; 2 Corinthians 3:6; Hebrews 9:14-22). But the fact
remains. The new covenant has not been—nor will it ever be—made with
The new covenant will replace the old, and it will be made with
those in possession of the old. And, apart from being ministers of
the new during the interim (for the blood has been shed, and this is
the basis for all ministry during the present time), the Church has
no more to do with the establishment of the new covenant than it did
with the establishment of the old covenant.
Thus, when one talks about “New Testament doctrine,” “New Testament
theology,” etc., the expressions cannot extend beyond the thought of
doctrine or theology which has for its basis the shed blood of
Christ; and this is something which cannot be understood at all
apart from the Old Testament.
Revelation surrounding the shedding of blood
for the remission of sins begins in
three, immediately following man's fall; and the entire
Old Testament sacrificial system which followed pointed toward the
One—of Whom the prophets spoke (cf.
Isaiah 53:12; Zechariah 12:10; 13:6)—Who would one day
come and take away “the sin of the world” through the sacrifice of
Himself (John 1:29).
The foundations have been established in the Old Testament,
and both Testaments together comprise one continuous, complete
revelation of all the various facets of the person and work of
Christ. And the only way one can grasp the complete picture
is to look at the whole of Scripture after this fashion.
Scripture is Theopneustos
3:16 in the KJV reads,
“All scripture is
given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine
[teaching], for reproof, for correction, for instruction in
The words, “given
by inspiration of God,” are a translation of the one
Greek word, theopneustos, meaning “God-breathed.” This is a
compound word comprised of Theos (“God”) and pneuma
("breath" in this particular usage [this is also the word used for
“Spirit” in the N. T.—the Holy Spirit, man's spirit, and the use of
spirit in general; also “wind” in
That which is meant by and the implications of Scripture being
God-breathed are given in a somewhat simple manner in Scripture, but
one has to look at and compare related parts of both Testaments
before he can really begin to see and understand that which is
involved. A person has to reference passages in one Testament, then
passages in the other. He has to compare Scripture with Scripture,
i.e., he has to compare “spiritual things with spiritual.”
Note first of all Hebrews 4:12:
word of God is quick [lit., ‘alive’], and powerful, and sharper than
any two-edged sword...”
Now, the question: Why is the Word of God “alive,”
“powerful,” and “sharper
than any two-edged sword”? The answer: Because of its
origin. The Word is “theopneustos”; The Word is
But, what does that mean? And why is the Word “alive” because of its
origin? This is where one has to go back to beginning points in the
Old Testament and find the first mention in Scripture of God
bringing a matter to pass through the use of His breath.
This is necessary not only because of the need to compare Scripture
with Scripture but also because of a principle of Biblical
interpretation, called, “the First-Mention Principle.” This
principle has to do with unchangeableness, and it centers on
an unchangeable structure of the Word given by the unchangeable God.
Because of the inherent nature of the Word, the first time a
subject is mentioned in Scripture, a pattern, a mold is established
at that point which remains unchanged throughout the remainder of
Remaining within this principle, the first time one finds the
breath of God mentioned in Scripture is in
Genesis 2:7, in connection
with life imparted to man; and, consequently, at this beginning
point, this verse connects life with the breath of God
after an unchangeable fashion. God formed and fashioned man from the
dust of the ground, but man was not created alive. Life was
subsequently imparted through God breathing into man's “nostrils the
breath of life,” resulting in man becoming “a living soul.”
Thus, at this point in Scripture the unchangeable connection between
God's breath and life is established and set. Only God
can produce life, and any time life is produced beyond this point it
must always be through the one means set forth at the
beginning, revealed in Genesis 2:7.
The whole of the matter can be illustrated after a simple fashion
from a later Old Testament passage, the vision of the valley of dry
bones in Ezekiel,
The bones are presented as lifeless, and the question is asked in
verse three, “Son
of man, can these bones live?” Then note in verse five
how life is to be affected: “Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live.”
And verse eight, revealing their condition following “sinews,”
“flesh,” and “skin” covering them, but prior to God acting, states,
“there was no breath in them.”
Then there is a cry in verse nine
for “breath” so that “these slain . . . may live.” And the end of
the matter is then given in verse
ten: “...breath came
into them, and they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceeding
37, in its entirety, outlines events of a yet future day.
It has to do with that time when Messiah returns and life
[spiritual] is restored to “the
whole house of Israel
[both those alive at that time (possessing natural life) and
resurrected O. T. saints]” [Exodus
The remnant in the land today comprises only a small portion of “the
whole house of Israel”; and this remnant, in relation to
God's breath, can only be described after the same fashion as Jews
anywhere else in the world—lifeless [spiritually]. Then, beyond
that, the dead from the past dispensation must be included
[Scripture presents “the whole
house of Israel” remaining dead for the entire two
days—2,000 years—of the present dispensation (John 11:6, 7, 43, 44)].
”The whole house of Israel”
is pictured today after one fashion in Scripture—very dry bones, without breath. But they will one day live.
When? “After two days
[after 2,000 years]
will he revive us: in the third day [in the third
1,000-year period, the Messianic Era] he will raise us up, and we
shall live in his sight” [Hosea
Thus, there is the information from the Old Testament to show what
is meant by the statement in 2 Timothy 3:16 (“All
scripture is God-breathed...”), to show the connection
between this verse and Hebrews
4:12 (“For the word of
God is alive...”), and to show the full implications
involved by what is further stated about the whole of Scripture in
Luke 8:55; James 2:26; Revelation
13:15. The word pneuma appears in each verse,
referring to “life”; and the word should be understood as “breath”
in these passages.)
Then there is the inseparable connection between the Spirit (the
Pneuma) and the Word:
“For the prophecy [referring
to written revelation (v. 20)] came not in old time by the
will of man: but holy [set apart] men of God spoke as they
were moved [borne along] by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter
The Word is “God-breathed,” and thus “alive,”
because of the Spirit's inseparable connection with the Word.
He is the One who gave the Word to man through man, and He is
the One presently in the world to guide man “into
all truth” through the use of this Word (John
The Pneuma (Spirit/Breath) is not only the One Who gave the
Word after this fashion in past time, but He is also the One Who
affects man's regeneration after a similar fashion during the
present time. It is the present work of the Pneuma
(Spirit/Breath) in man's regeneration that produces life (there must
be a breathing in for man to pass “from
death unto life” [cf.
Genesis 1:2; 2:7; John 3:6-8; 5:24]).
And the Pneuma (Spirit/Breath) not only produces this life
(based on Christ's finished work at Calvary), but He presently
indwells the one to whom He has imparted life in order to lead and
guide that person into an understanding—from immaturity to
maturity—of the God-breathed Word that He Himself previously
imparted to man through man.
Thus, it is the breath of God producing life in unregenerate
man today, through the instrumentality of the Spirit, based on the
Son's finished work. And that new life is nurtured and
sustained by a continued work of the Spirit, through the use of that
which is itself the breath of God, and, accordingly, living.
The Holy Spirit uses only that which is living to
nourish and nurture that which has been made alive. Spiritual
growth from immaturity to maturity requires spiritual nourishment,
which is derived from only one source. There's no other way
for spiritual growth to occur.
That's why pastor-teachers have been exhorted
to “Preach the Word,”
and that's why Christians have been exhorted to "study" this same
Word (2 Timothy 2:15; 4:2).
A person's ability to function in the spiritual realm is
inseparably connected with that person's knowledge of and ability to
use the Word of God.
It's the WORD, the WORD, the WORD! Christians have been
given nothing else; nor do they need anything else.
Faith Is...Through Faith...Without Faith
“Now faith is the substance of
things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen...
Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the Word
of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which
But without faith it is impossible to please Him: for he that cometh
to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them
that diligently seek Him”
(Hebrews 11:1, 3, 6).
When an unsaved man believes on the Lord Jesus Christ, the Spirit
breathes life into that man, based on the finished work of God’s Son
at Calvary. Breath is imparted, and man passes “from
death unto life.” Man’s spiritual nature is made alive,
resulting in that individual possessing something that he,
heretofore, didn’t possess—spiritual life. This is wrought,
in its entirety, through the work of the Spirit of God; and this new
life is then to be fed and nurtured by the same Spirit through the
use of that which is spiritual. All is spiritual.
Consequently, there is a spiritual life which requires
spiritual sustenance, resulting in a spiritual walk, etc.
All of this is completely alien to the thinking of “the natural man
['the soulical man'],” “dead in
trespasses and sins” (Ephesians
2:1). He does not have spiritual life. His experiences
relative to “life” pertain only to the natural; and,
resultingly, “the things of the
Spirit of God,” having to do with spiritual life,
are “foolishness unto him”
(1 Corinthians 2:9-14).
Things having to do with this spiritual life are “spiritually
discerned,” and the natural man has no capacity to comprehend these
things, for, spiritually, he is dead. There is no breath
from God within that person. He is as the bones in the valley in
Ezekiel 37—very dry,
On the other hand, the spiritual man, having “passed from
death unto life” through the impartation of breath, possesses
the capacity to understand spiritual truth. And the spiritual man,
within his spiritual walk, is to act in only one realm. He
is to act in the realm of “faith.” The interrelated realms of
“sight,” “man’s wisdom,” “the arm of flesh,” etc. are all alien to
the realm of “faith.” Faith alone has to do with “the
spiritual”; all else has to do with “the natural.”
“Faith” is simply believing God. Acting or walking ‘by faith”
is simply acting or walking on the basis of what God has said
about a matter. “...who hath
believed our report? So then faith cometh by
[‘out of’] hearing, and hearing by [‘through’] the Word of
God” (Romans 10:16b, 17).
God has spoken, redeemed man within his spiritual capacity is to
avail himself of that which God has stated, and he is then to act
Hebrews 11:1 is not a
definition of faith. Rather the verse, continuing from the preceding
chapter, provides that which results in the spiritual life
from one's exercise of faith. And, as is evident from the verses
leading into chapter eleven, this has to do particularly with things
related to the saving of the soul.
The word “believe” in verse
thirty-nine and the word “faith” in the next verse (11:1)
are from the same word in the Greek text (pistis). Also note
“faith” (pistis) in 10:38
(ref. NASB). The thought from verses concluding chapter
ten continues right on
into chapter eleven,
and this should be so understood as one begins reading in chapter
In Hebrews 10:38, the “just
[redeemed]” person is to “live by faith.” He is to
believe God as he exercises “patience
[‘patient endurance’]” under present trials and testing,
knowing that a promised inheritance lies out ahead and knowing that
one day (“yet a little while”) “He
that shall come will come” and will bring to pass that
which has been promised (10:36,
37; cf. Hebrews
6:12; James 1:2-4, 12).
If he (the “just”" person who is presently believing God and acting
on that basis) draws back from such a life, the Lord states, “My
soul shall have no pleasure in him.” That is, if the
person draws back (stops believing God and, resultantly, acts on the
basis of non-belief, non-faith), God will not be pleased or
delighted at all with that person.
God delights in an individual living in one realm only—the realm of
belief, faith. God delights in an individual, by faith.
God delights in an individual, by faith, keeping his eyes
fixed on the revealed goal out ahead and moving toward that goal—the
goal that God revealed in His Word. God delights in an
individual, by faith, fixing and keeping his attention
centered on that which He Himself has revealed to be of utmost
And that's exactly what is in view in these closing verses of
ten, leading into chapter
eleven. Closing chapter
ten, the writer states,
“But we are not of them who draw
back unto perdition [those
ceasing to walk by faith, resulting in their own ruin (in
relation to the matter at hand—the promised inheritance, the saving
of the soul)]; but of them that believe [continue walking
by faith] to the saving of the soul.”
Those in the former group take their eyes off the goal, begin
looking around, and God has no delight in them. Those
in the latter group though keep their eyes fixed on the goal, they
don't look to one side or the other, and God delights in them.
One is unfaithful to the saving of the soul, and the other is
faithful to the saving of the soul.
That's the backdrop for Hebrews,
chapter eleven; and
when one begins at the first verse, he must understand that this
chapter is simply a continuation of that which has proceeded. Verse
one should be
understood in the sense of,
"Now believing God
to the saving of the soul [10:39]
is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not
"Substance" is the translation of the Greek
word hupostasis. This is a compound word, comprised of
hupo (“under”) and stasis (“to stand”). The word, in its
literal sense, means, "to stand under." In this respect, it is used
in the sense of “a foundation,” that which stands under and supports
the structure above.
Believing God (with particular reference to the saving of the soul)
is that which stands under all else. Believing God is that which
forms this foundation. In this respect, believing God and
the foundation of matters at hand are, in reality, one and the
same. Thus, apart from such belief, the structure above will have no
foundation below. If the structure ever existed in the first place
(note those who drew back [10:38,
39]), it can only collapse; and if it never existed at
all, a building process cannot occur.
Some English translations or word studies will use terms such as
“firm confidence” or “assurance” in an effort to convey the meaning
of hupostasis. These are good and well, but they are only
efforts of translators to convey into English that which is set
forth in the Greek text as a firmly fixed foundation upon
which all must be built, if it is to be built.
In the preceding respect, believing God to the saving of the soul is
the firm confidence (the unshakable foundation) “of
things hoped for, the evidence
[a ‘bringing to light’ so that we have proof] of things
Believing God is the firm confidence of one day realizing the hope
set before us (cf. Titus 1:2; 2:12, 13; 3:7; Hebrews 3:6; 6:12-20); and
believing God brings to light all the things which God has promised
after such a fashion that we have proof. He has promised these
things in the God-breathed Word, and His Word fails not.
“Through faith we understand...”
That is to say, “Through believing what God has revealed in His
Word, we understand...” This could apply to any realm in which God
has spoken, but the text has to do with God's design of the ages
and that which He has purposed for man within the framework of these
Through believing God we understand “that
the worlds [Gk. aionas,
‘ages’] were framed [established in an orderly arrangement and
manner] by the word of God...” The reference would be
back to the opening verses of
God has appointed His Son “heir
of all things,” and it was through the work of His Son
within the framework of the ages that God, in the beginning, “made the worlds [‘made the
ages’]” (Hebrews 1:2).
God is a God of order. All the ages—encompassing all time
(past, present, and future)—have been placed in an orderly
arrangement and this was done in the beginning. Not only
is this the case, but the Divine design surrounding this orderly
arrangement centers around the work of God's Son within the
framework of these ages.
And knowledge of this fact will, at the very outset, tell one what
the book of Hebrews is
about. Immediately preceding seven Messianic quotations, the book
begins by calling attention to the Son's coming heirship within the
framework of the ages which God has established (1:2-13).
Then after dealing with Christians through two
major warnings relative to that future day when “the
heir of all things” will bring “many
sons unto glory” to realize “so
great salvation” (chaps.
2-4), the writer refers to
Christ being made a Priest "after
the order of Melchizedek" (5:6ff);
a quotation from Psalm 110
(v. 4), a Messianic
“Thou art a priest forever
[lit., ‘with respect to the age’ (one age)] after the
order of Melchizedek.”
And Christ being a Priest after this order
is specifically stated to be something reserved for a time
encompassed by one of the ages within the framework of all
the ages referred to in Hebrews
Thus, within this framework,
Hebrews 11:3 should not
only be understood in the light of Heb. 1:2 but also in the light of
Hebrews 5:6ff. The
“age” referred to in Hebrews 5:6
can, contextually, only be the Messianic Era, the age in
which the Son will be manifested as “heir
of all things,” that future time when He will bring “many
sons unto glory” with Him (1:2;
This is what the book is about; and this must
be recognized as one moves throughout the book, else he will find
himself lost in a sea of misinterpretation.
Then note the latter part of
Hebrews 11:3: “...so
that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.”
Again, remain within the context for a correct understanding
of that which has been stated. The context (10:38ff)
has to do with the saving of the soul, the hope set before us, and
the ages placed in an orderly arrangement by God. And the emphasis,
contextually, is on one particular age within these ages—that age
when Christ will exercise the Melchizedek priesthood, the Messianic
The “things which are seen”
and the “things which do appear,”
contextually, cannot refer to the origin of the material universe
about us. The reference is not back to
though we do, as well, understand, “by faith” that which is stated
concerning God's creation of all that exists. Rather, the reference
is to existing conditions seen "by sight" during the present age,
which are set in contrast to the things that redeemed man has been
allowed to see "by faith" relative to God's Divine design within the
framework of His arrangement of the ages. And, again, the
emphasis in the realm of faith would be on one particular age within
these ages, the Messianic Era (the things hoped for, yet
unseen [though seen by faith], in v.
The latter part of verse three
should be understood in the sense of,
that the things which God has brought to pass within the framework
of His orderly arrangement of the ages, which an individual sees and
understands through faith, are separate and distinct from the
disorder one sees all about him during one of these ages.”
The word ginomai (“to become,” “happen,”
“take place” referring to something with a definite beginning and
possible ending) appears in a perfect tense in the Greek text in the
latter part of this verse (translated, with a negative, “were not
made” [KJV]). The perfect tense refers to action completed in the
past and existing during present time in a finished state.
Ginomai in this verse refers to God's past action in arranging
the ages in an orderly fashion—action completed at that time and
presently existing in a finished state.
Thus, in this sense, there is a present aspect
to the matter of God's orderly arrangement of the ages. But the
verse states specifically that though there is a present aspect, the
present disorderly condition all about us, which one can see and
experience, is separate and distinct from the orderly condition
which God has decreed (past) will shortly exist (future).
This orderly condition is what Christians can presently see through
simply believing God. They can see what God had decreed,
established, and promised in the past through His orderly structure
of the ages. Then they can view the present and future within this
framework, believing God and conducting their present pilgrim walk
Apart from faith—apart from believing God—it is impossible to please
Him. And that would be self-explanatory. God has spoken, and He
expects the one to whom He has spoken to believe that which He has
stated. If man believes, then God is pleased. However, if
man doesn't believe, then the opposite is true. God is
displeased. The matter is that simple.
The same thought can be seen a few verses earlier in
Hebrews 10:38. The “just”
person is to live by faith. If though he departs from such a life,
the Lord states, “my soul shall
have no pleasure in him.”
The context in verse thirty-eight
has to do with faith relative to a promised inheritance at the time
of Christ's return (vv. 36-39),
and Hebrews 11:6 is no
different. In this verse the one coming to God by faith “must
believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that
diligently seek him.”
Believing that God “is” would take one back to God's statement to
Moses in Exodus 3:14.
God, revealing Himself to Moses, simply identified Himself as “I
Am.” And the verb used in the Greek text of
Hebrews 11:6 would be a
Greek equivalent. It is simply a verb of being (eimi),
incorporating no beginning or end (as distinguished from ginomai
used back in v. 3).
It is the same verb used in John
1:1, 2, translated “was”:
“In the beginning was the Word...”
That is, the Word existed without reference to a beginning or an end
at that point in time when the material creation was brought into
(The same Greek verb was also used by
Christ when He identified Himself to the “band of men and officers
from the chief priests and Pharisees” in John 18:5-8. The
identifying words, “I am He,” should literally read, “I Am”
-- a clear declaration of His deity, identifying Himself with the
God of the Old Testament.)
Believing that God “is” is simply believing in His eternal,
unchangeable existence as set forth in the Word. He always has so
existed, and He always will so exist. “In the beginning God...” And God expects man to believe that
He “is” on one basis alone—the revelation of Himself in His Word (cf.
Then God expects man to believe that He is “a rewarder of them
that diligently seek Him” on the basis of the same revelation.
God offers rewards for faithfulness, and He expects man to
believe that this is the case on the simple basis of the fact that
He has so stated.
Man though often sees things in a somewhat different respect,
disdaining the teaching of rewards and compensation for
faithfulness; but not so with Scripture. To the contrary, Scripture
deals with faith in relation to rewards and compensation.
This, textually, is what is being believed in an exercise of faith.
And the highest of all rewards is that with which the context
is concerned—the reception of the promised inheritance at the
time of Christ's return. And that is really the thought which
carries over into the text (note the inheritance mentioned in
connection with Noah and Abraham in the succeeding two verses [vv.
7, 8]). Then the whole of chapter
eleven continues and ends
with this same subject—receiving that which has been promised
10:36; 11:9, 13, 26, 39).
The beginning points and prerequisites for coming into an
understanding of the Word are very simple:
A person must first of all see the Word for what it is—the
God-breathed Word which not only reveals God's plans and purposes
within the framework of the ages but that which is also able to
build a person up and give him an inheritance within the one age
toward which all things move—the coming Messianic Era (Acts
Then, in order for the latter to occur, a person must believe God
and govern his life accordingly. And to do this he must begin at
the point of finding out what God has stated, for “faith
cometh by [‘out of’]
hearing, and hearing by [‘through’] the Word of God”
And there's no limit to the heights a person can rise in the
realm of faith, for there's no limit to the depths of God's
revelation to man. The latter is inexhaustible, and so must the
former be as well.
Arlen L. Chitwood, The Lamp Broadcast, Inc., Norman, Oklahoma.