Arlen L. Chitwood
Haman’s House Given to Esther
Then the king said, “Hang [impale] him on it!”
So they hanged [impaled] Haman on the gallows that he had prepared for Mordecai. Then the king’s wrath subsided.
On that day King Ahasuerus gave Queen Esther the house of Haman, the enemy of the Jews. And Mordecai came before the king, for Esther had told how he was related to her.
So the king took off his signet ring, which he had taken from Haman, and gave it to Mordecai; and Esther appointed Mordecai over the house of Haman. . . .
Then King Ahasuerus said to Queen Esther and Mordecai the Jew, “Indeed, I have given Esther the house of Haman, and they have hanged [impaled] him on the gallows because he tried to lay his hand on the Jews.” (Esther 7:9b, 10; 8:1, 2, 7)
The Old Testament can be divided into three major sections — Genesis through Esther (historic), Job through the Song of Solomon (personal and experiential), and Isaiah through Malachi (prophetic). And the book of Esther coming at the end of the first of these three major sections would be the proper place for this book in the canon of Scripture.
Insofar as the historical nature (and much of the typical nature) of that seen throughout the first part of these three major sections is concerned, Esther — having to do with Israel — outlines, in a typical fashion, that seen throughout the whole of this first section of Scripture (Genesis 11b ff). Thus, in this respect, the book of Esther simply presents a brief summary of all that has preceded surrounding Israel, with the emphasis placed in the same realm seen in the preceding Scriptures that the book outlines — on the latter days, leading into the Messianic Era.
This first major section of Scripture (Genesis through Esther) is often thought of only in the sense of providing biblical history, along with spiritual lessons drawn from biblical history. However, viewing this section of Scripture from this perspective alone only presents part of the picture. This section, through mainly its type-antitype structure, is highly prophetic in nature. In fact, from a typical perspective, this first section is just as prophetic in nature as the third section — from Isaiah through Malachi, containing the major and minor prophets (major and minor in the sense of length, not importance).
Also, though this first section centers on Israel and the nations from a historical perspective, typology throughout this section is another matter. The typical structure of this section of Scripture, a section covering about one-half of the entire Old Testament, is somewhat divided between God and Israel and Christ and the Church.
For example, viewing two parts of Genesis (chapters 2-4 and 23-25), chapters 2, 3 have to do with Christ and the Church, and chapter 4 has to do with God and Israel; then chapter 23 has to do with God and Israel, chapter 24 has to do with Christ and the Church, and chapter 25 has to do with God and Israel once again.
Both aspects of these typical teachings can be seen in the lives of Joseph in the latter part of Genesis (chapters 37-45) and Moses in the first part of Exodus (chapters 2-4). Both Joseph and Moses took Gentile brides during a time after they had been rejected by and separated from their brethren (having to do with Christ and the Church, following Christ’s rejection by and separation from Israel, His brethren according to the flesh); but the time came when both Joseph and Moses dealt with their brethren again (having to do with God and Israel, with that time when God resumes His national dealings with Israel).
(Much of the preceding is developed more fully in the author’s books, Had Ye Believed Moses, The Bride in Genesis, and Search for the Bride.)
Then, whole books deal with matters in this typical manner. Most of the book of Exodus deals with God and Israel in this respect, and the books of 1, 2 Samuel deal with Christ and the Church in this same respect. Then, the same thing can be seen in the books of Ruth and Esther. The book of Ruth deals with Christ and the Church, while the book of Esther deals with God and Israel.
And, viewing matters from a different perspective yet, note that the journey of the Israelites under Moses and Joshua typifies the journey of Christians under Christ today. An earthly land lay before one in the type, and a heavenly land lies before the other in the antitype.
This type-antitype structure is that which is referenced through the use of the word tupos (type) in the Greek text of 1 Corinthians 10:6, 11; this is the basis upon which particularly the second, third, and fourth of the five major warnings in Hebrews are to be understood (Hebrews 3-10); and this forms the basis for a proper understanding of the entire pilgrim walk of the Christian today (a journey from Egypt [a type of the world] to Canaan [a type of that heavenly land, connected with an inheritance and a rest, awaiting Christians]).
Thus, saying that this first major section of Scripture is historic in nature, apart from being prophetic, would be far from correct. Within its typical structure, this section of Scripture is highly prophetic — as prophetic as any section of subsequent Scripture. And not only are numerous prophecies seen in the types extending from Genesis through Esther but also in places such as Balaam’s prophecies (Numbers 22-24), or that seen in God’s promises and warnings to Israel in Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28 as well.
This section of Scripture provides a detailed history of Israel, relating the reason why the nation was called into existence, what was expected of this nation, and the reason why the Jewish people ultimately found themselves uprooted from their land and scattered among the Gentile nations. Then, viewing the typical aspect of this section of Scripture, events move beyond history into prophecy, showing the end of the matter — the same thing seen in the Psalms and the Prophets.
This is the way in which God designed and structured this opening section of His Word. And if man would properly understand God’s revealed Word, he must recognize this fact and study this Word after the same fashion in which it has been given.
This opening section of Scripture, from Genesis through Esther, forms the backdrop for not only the second major section (a section covering five books, from Job through the Song of Solomon) but the third major section as well (all of the prophetic books, extending from Isaiah through Malachi). That would be to say, Genesis through Esther forms the backdrop for the remainder of the Old Testament. And if man does not understand (or if he ignores) that which is placed at the beginning, it will be impossible for him to ever come into a proper understanding of later revelation (including of course the New Testament as well), for the latter is inseparably tied to and built upon the former in this respect.
God’s revelation to man is progressive in the sense that it has been designed so that a proper understanding of later revelation rests on a proper understanding of former revelation. One part progresses into the other, and Scripture must be compared with Scripture — later revelation with earlier revelation, and earlier revelation with later revelation (1 Corinthians 2:9-13; cf. Isaiah 28:10).
For example, in the second section, there are numerous Psalms covering not only Israel’s present condition (scattered among the Gentile nations) but also that which lies in the future for Israel (the end of Gentile world power, with Israel restored to her land and elevated to her proper place among the nations [e.g., Psalms, chapters 2, 8, 22-24, 37, 45-47, 76, 83, 89, 97, 102, 110, 121, 126, 137, 145]). And these Psalms cannot be properly understood apart from the backdrop provided by the first section of Scripture.
The fact that numerous Psalms cannot be properly understood apart from this first section should be easy enough to understand, for this first section of Scripture reveals the history of Israel, revealing why God allowed the Gentile nations to come into the land and uproot His people. Then, beyond that, the typical aspect of the first section enters into the matter, projecting events out into the future, as seen in the Psalms.
And all of the prophets present exactly the same central theme. It is that which is seen throughout the preceding Psalms, or the preceding historical books, viewing the latter from both historical and typical vantage points.
Each of the prophetic books (seventeen in all, as there are seventeen historic books) deals with different facets of God’s punishment upon Israel for the nation’s disobedience, followed by the Jewish people’s repentance, followed by the destruction of Gentile world power, followed by God restoring Israel. These things comprise the overriding theme of all Old Testament prophecy as it pertains to Israel, whether in the historic books, the Psalms, or the Prophets.
Each of the prophetic books, beginning with Isaiah, covers, after some fashion, this panorama of Israeli history — events extending from the time of the nation’s inception almost three and one-half millennia ago to the Messianic Kingdom yet future. But no two of these seventeen books cover exactly the same thing, after exactly the same fashion. Each book centers on a particular and peculiar facet of study within this panorama of events.
In this respect, studying these prophetic books is much like studying types. As no one type provides the complete picture in and of itself, no one Old Testament prophetic book provides the complete picture in and of itself as well.
Over and over in the Old Testament — beginning in Genesis — the end of Gentile world power comes into view. There is an emphasis placed in this realm, for Gentile world power must be brought to an end before Israel can occupy the nation’s proper place within a restored theocracy. This is why one finds the power of Egypt destroyed in the Red Sea at the time of the Exodus under Moses (Exodus 14:27-31); this is why one finds Haman slain in Esther prior to the Jewish people receiving their proper and due recognition (7:9, 10; 8:15-17; 10:1-3); and this is why numerous Psalms and the Prophets deal with this subject prior to Israel being restored (e.g., Psalm 2:1-5; Isaiah 24:21; Jeremiah 4:26-28; Ezekiel 39:21, 22; Daniel 11:36-45; Joel 3:12-16).
Gentile world power is going to come to an end. And its end will be as depicted in Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, and 45, among numerous other places in the Old Testament. Christ will return and personally destroy Gentile world power in its final form, headed up under Antichrist in that coming day. And once Gentile world power has been destroyed in this manner, Scripture pictures it as “chaff” thrown into the wind from a threshing floor, being carried away by that wind.
A “threshing floor” is used in Scripture to depict judgment. This is true of God’s judgment upon Christians at the end of this dispensation (cf. Ruth 3:2ff; Matthew 3:11, 12), and it is equally true of God’s judgment upon the Gentile nations at the end of the Tribulation.
If one understands these things about Gentile world power, the latter part of the book of Esther will naturally fall into place. It is simply the story of God bringing Israel to the place of repentance, bringing Gentile world power to an end, and elevating the Jewish people to their rightful place — the place that they were to occupy when called out of Egypt under Moses almost 3,500 years ago.
And to deny that this sequence of events will occur at the end of Man’s Day is to deny the central theme of all Old Testament Scripture, as it pertains to Israel and the nations. Much of Old Testament Scripture surrounding Israel and the nations awaits fulfillment. And, in this respect, when God steps in and begins to fulfill these prophecies, multiplied thousands of prophecies seen throughout the pages of Old Testament Scripture will be fulfilled in a very short period of time.
God, through the writers of the Old Testament, has provided a voluminous amount of information on this subject; and there is no reason for anyone today to be uniformed or ignorant concerning that which God is about to do. It has all been laid out in the Old Testament Scriptures, beginning with Moses and ending with the Prophets.
The House of Haman
A reference to one’s house, such as “the house of Haman,” is often used in Scripture in a different manner than we would normally think of the expression in the West today. The thought from Scripture, in its broadest usage, can have to do with all which appertains to that person — all his property, all his possessions, and all the people associated with him.
Or, note in Hebrews 3:5, 6, the house of Moses and the house of Christ. One has to do with Israelites, who possessed an earthly calling under Moses during the past dispensation; and the other has to do with Christians, who possess a heavenly calling under Christ during the present dispensation.
Then, the entire nation of Israel is referred to as “the house of Israel” in a similar respect (Matthew 10:6; 13:1; 15:24; 23:38). The thought has to do with all that pertains to Israel in a national sense — a peculiar people with property, possessions, and promises.
Or the thought of “a house” could be used in a different sense yet, with the context always being the determining factor. The “house of David” in 2 Samuel 7:16, for example, had to do with David’s lineage in a regal respect (with the kingly tribe of Judah in view), culminating in the Messiah.
David had sought to build the Lord a house, but the Lord said that He would make a house out of David instead. God, referring to David’s lineage, stated that He would establish David’s house — i.e., raise up his seed after him (v. 12). And, in this manner, the throne of David — having to do with not only David but with Messiah, Israel, and the kingdom — would be established “forever” (cf. Ezekiel 37:24-28; Joel 2:27; Luke 1:31-33).
The reference to the “house of Haman” in the book of Esther must be understood in a contextual respect as well. This is a reference to all that pertained to Haman — property, possessions, and people. And the king giving the house of Haman to Esther following Haman’s death was simply his giving to Esther all that had pertained to Haman (8:1).
Then, after the king had given the house of Haman to Esther, he removed his ring from his finger. This was the ring that he had previously both given to and taken from Haman; and he now gave it to Mordecai. All this was then followed by Esther placing Mordecai over the house of Haman (3:10; 8:2).
Mordecai, at this time, came into possession of all that Haman had previously possessed. The king’s ring (giving him power in the kingdom [3:12; 8:8]) and Haman’s house (property, possessions, and people in the kingdom) now belonged to Mordecai. He now held the exact position that Haman had previously held — a regal position directly under the king, with the delegated authority to exercise power throughout the kingdom, emanating from the king (cf. 8:15-17; 10:1-3).
And moving this into the antitype, one finds exactly the same thing concerning the house of Antichrist and the Jewish people. All that will pertain to Antichrist in that day will come into possession of the Jewish people following his being put down, exactly as in the type. The Jewish people, rather than Antichrist, will possess the King’s ring; and they, coming into possession of Antichrist’s house, will then rule the house.
This is when and how the Times of the Gentiles will end. Twenty-six hundred years of Gentile rule will come to a sudden and climactic end. The scepter will pass from the hands of the Gentiles into the hands of the Jews. The house that the Gentiles had ruled for millennia will be placed under Israeli control; and the Jewish people, as God’s firstborn son, exercising the rights of primogeniture (cf. Exodus 4:22, 23), will then rule the house.
1) The Times of the Gentiles
The “times of the Gentiles” (Luke 21:24) should never have occurred. That is to say, Israel should have remained obedient, preventing the Times of the Gentiles from ever occurring. The Old Testament theocracy should have continued to exist in an uninterrupted manner, with Israel continuing to hold the scepter and ultimately coming into a full realization of the nation’s calling.
But, because of Jewish disobedience, God allowed that which has occurred for the past 2,600 years. And, as it began for a revealed purpose, that purpose will one day be realized, bringing an end to this period of time. That is to say, the Times of the Gentiles is about to be brought to an end, for God’s purpose for allowing this time to occur is about to be realized.
This period known as the Times of the Gentiles began about 605 B.C. The stage was set over one hundred years earlier when God allowed the Assyrians to come down and take the northern ten tribes into captivity in 722 B.C. Assyria was the Gentile world power of that day; and, over one hundred years later, in 612 B.C., the Babylonians, Medes, and Scythians conquered this empire, completely destroying its capital city, Nineveh. Following this, the Babylonian kingdom is seen rising into prominence — as a phoenix, rising out of the ashes of the previously destroyed Assyrian kingdom — becoming the succeeding Gentile world power of that day.
Nebuchadnezzar succeeded his father, Nebopolassar, in 605 B.C. And he not only brought about the beginning of the Times of the Gentiles by completing the captivity of the Jewish people (a captivity that began shortly after he came to power), but he also subsequently brought the kingdom of Babylon to the height of its beginning glory among the Gentile nations (Daniel 1:1ff; 4:30).
Thus, it was near the beginning of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign in Babylon that the scepter passed from the hands of Israel into the hands of the Gentiles. This couldn’t have occurred in 722 with the Assyrian invasion of the land, for the southern two tribes (Judah and Benjamin) still remained in the land; and, along with these two tribes remaining in the land, the theocracy (which had been established over eight hundred years earlier, during Moses’ day) continued without change. The Times of the Gentiles could begin only when God allowed the Gentiles to remove the southern two tribes from their land, bringing an end to the theocracy.
The book of Daniel deals with the Times of the Gentiles within the scope of that seen in the four parts of Daniel’s image (chapter 2), or the four wild beasts (chapter 7). This period began with a king in Babylon, who came against the Jewish people in Jerusalem; and it will end with a king in Babylon, who will come against the Jewish people in Jerusalem once again, and for the last time.
It all revolves around the Gentiles and Babylon on the one hand and the Jews and Jerusalem on the other. The first king of Babylon, through activity surrounding the Jewish people and Jerusalem, brought about the beginning to the Times of the Gentiles; and the last king of Babylon, through activity surrounding the Jewish people and Jerusalem, will bring about an end to the Times of the Gentiles.
And during the interim, Jerusalem being or not being under Jewish control, or the Temple Mount being or not being under Jewish control has nothing whatsoever to do with the matter. That which occurred at the end of the Six-Day War in 1967, for example — the old city of Jerusalem, along with the Temple Mount, coming under Jewish control — had nothing whatsoever to do with ending the Times of the Gentiles, as many have erroneously sought to teach
The Times of the Gentiles exists for a purpose. This period exists because of Jewish disobedience, and it will not pass out of existence until the reason for God’s purpose surrounding this period of time has been realized. It will not be brought to an end until Israel has been brought to the place of repentance.
The beginning and end of the Times of the Gentiles are inseparably tied to Israel’s past disobedience and Israel’s future repentance. Apart from Israel’s past disobedience, the Times of the Gentiles wouldn’t have begun; and apart from the Israel’s future repentance, the Times of the Gentiles couldn’t be brought to a close. Understanding the Times of the Gentiles, in one respect, is that simple.
2) The Final Years
What then is about to happen? The answer can be found in Scripture alone, and it can be found innumerable places in Scripture. God’s purpose for the Times of the Gentiles is about to be realized. Israel is about to be brought to the place of repentance. That’s what is about to happen!
Israel, because of the nation’s disobedience, was delivered into the hands of the first king of Babylon; and this act, bringing an end to the Old Testament theocracy, began the Times of the Gentiles. Now, some 2,600 years later — in order to bring about a climax to that which has been happening throughout this 2,600-year period, in order to put an end to Israel’s disobedience through bringing about Israel’s repentance — this same nation is about to be delivered into the hands of the last king of Babylon; and through that resulting from this climactic act, the Times of the Gentiles will be brought to an end, allowing the theocracy to be restored to Israel.
And central events that will occur during this time have been pre-recorded for all to see. Specific reference is made in Scripture to Jerusalem being destroyed and trodden under foot for the final three and one-half years of the Times of the Gentiles — the period during which Antichrist will rule the world. Jerusalem will be destroyed and trodden under foot by the last king of Babylon during this time, with the Jews who do not escape to a specially prepared place in the mountainous terrain of the land of Israel either being killed or sold as slaves throughout the Gentile world (cf. Daniel 9:26; Matthew 24:15-22; Luke 21:20-24; Revelation 11:1, 2).
The nation of Israel, as it is known in the Middle East today, will cease to exist under this man’s reign. This man, in the middle of the Tribulation period, will destroy this nation. Then he will seek to do, worldwide, that which Hitler failed to do in Europe over half a century ago. Hitler sought to bring about a Jew-free Europe, but he failed; this man will seek to bring about a Jew-free earth, but he will likewise fail (cf. Jeremiah 31:35-37).
But, through this man’s actions, God’s purpose for the Times of the Gentiles — which really has to do more with Israel than with the Gentiles — will ultimately be realized. And this will allow God to bring this period to a close.
The Jewish people will be brought into such dire straits through the actions of Antichrist that they will have no place to turn other than to the God of their fathers. They will be brought to the place of repentance; and, once this occurs, there will no longer be a need for the Times of the Gentiles. It will be then, when Israel repents, that the things typified in Esther chapters six through ten will occur. It will be then, when Gentile world power has served its divine purpose, that the Stone will smite the image at its feet (Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, 45), becoming a great mountain (pointing to a kingdom, the kingdom of Christ) and filling the whole earth.
The earth’s scepter is about to change hands. Satan, who, with his angels, rules the earth through the Gentile nations, is about to be put down (cf. Ezekiel 28:14; Daniel 10:13-20; Luke 4:6; Ephesians 6:12); and Christ, with His co-heirs, will then take the kingdom (cf. Romans 8:17-20; Hebrews 1:9; 3:14-4:11; Revelation 19:7-21).
The Gentile nations, during the present day, rule the earth under Satan in this manner. They, under Satan and his angels, hold the scepter. Israel has never been nor will ever be placed in this position (i.e., exercise power under Satan, as the Gentile nations do). The heavenly prince in the angelic world over Israel during Man’s Day is Michael, who has no part in Satan’s kingdom (Daniel 10:21; cf. Numbers 23:9; Deuteronomy 7:6).
But the Times of the Gentiles is about to end, Gentiles are about to relinquish the scepter, and the nation of Israel is about to take the scepter (though not under Satan but under Christ, during the Lord’s Day; and Satan will be bound, in the abyss during this time [Revelation 20:1-3; cf. Joel 2:27; Luke 1:31-33]). Then matters will be completely reversed, for the Gentile nations will be subservient to and be ruled by Israel.
Thus, the government of the earth is about to undergo a complete change — exactly as seen in the book of Esther, though only the Jewish and Gentile side of the matter is presented in this book. One has to go to the book of Ruth to see the corresponding other part of the picture — Christ and His co-heirs taking the kingdom. But viewing the complete picture from both Ruth and Esther, governmental rule is about to pass from the hands of Satan, his angels, and the Gentile nations into the hands of Christ, His co-heirs, and the nation of Israel.
1) Held by the Gentiles
The Gentile nations have held the scepter — ruling under Satan, who rules under God (in a rebel capacity) — since the days of Nebuchadnezzar, about 2,600 years ago. And, as previously shown, this has been for a reason and a purpose surrounding Israel. God’s reason for allowing the Times of the Gentiles to exist in the first place had to do with Israel’s disobedience, and God’s purpose for allowing this time to continue for over two and one-half millennia has had to do with bringing Israel to the place of repentance.
That time when Israel will be brought to the place of repentance is fast approaching. And it can equally be said that the end of the Times of the Gentiles is also fast approaching. As long as Israel remains in an unrepentant state (e.g., today, either among Jews comprising the nation in the Middle East or among Jews remaining scattered among the nations), the Times of the Gentiles will continue. But once Israel has been brought to the place of repentance, the Times of the Gentiles will be brought to an end, suddenly and swiftly.
God’s purpose for allowing the Gentiles to exercise control in this manner will have been realized, and there will be no further need for the Times of the Gentiles to continue. Furthermore, it will be time for the final outworking of the principles set forth in Genesis 12:2, 3. Not only will the scepter be taken from the Gentiles and given to Israel, but God — to remain true to His Word — will have to enact judgment upon the same nations that He used to bring Israel to the place of repentance (cf. Zechariah 1:14, 15).
This is the why of the scene that Scripture presents of the nations both near and at the end of the Tribulation. Mass chaos will exist among the nations near the end of the Tribulation because of God’s wrath (Revelation 6:12-17; 16:17-21). Then, at the end of the Tribulation, the Stone cut out of the mountain without hands will suddenly and swiftly destroy the final form of Gentile world power, under Antichrist (Psalm 2:1-5; Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, 45; Revelation 19:11ff). Only then will God’s wrath be pacified, as seen in the type in Esther 7:10.
2) To Be Held by Israel
During the subsequent Messianic Era, as previously seen, Israel, rather than the Gentiles, will hold the scepter. And, as Israel occupies her God-ordained place with respect to the nations, the Gentile nations will not only be ruled by Israel but will be blessed through Israel as well.
God deals with mankind at large through Abraham and his seed, through Isaac and Jacob. This would have to do with the lineal descendants of Jacob through his twelve sons (the nation of Israel); it would have to do with a lineal descendant of Jacob through Judah and David, who is destined to sit on David’s throne (Christ); and it would have to do with those placed “in Christ,” through a work of the Spirit during the present dispensation (Christians). Blessings in that day will flow out to the nations of the earth through God’s three firstborn Sons — Christ, Israel, and the Church.
But, again, the book of Esther deals only with Israel and the nations, not with Christ and the Church. And the book of Esther outlines exactly what will occur when Israel one day, again, holds the scepter. Note the last three chapters in this book, where the Jews hold complete sway over the Gentiles in the kingdom, which is exactly as conditions will exist yet future.
The power emanated from the king in Esther’s day, exactly as it will emanate from the King during that coming day (cf. Esther 8:9, 10, 15-17; 9:1-5; Psalm 2:6-9; Joel 3:6-8). Christ will dwell in Israel’s midst, seated on David’s throne (Joel 2:27; Luke 1:31-33); the center of the earth’s government will then be Jerusalem, not Babylon, Rome, Washington, or any other Gentile capital city; and by means of this rule, though administered with “a rod of iron,” the Gentile nations of the earth will be blessed through Israel.
This is what the future holds for Israel and the nations, told through a sequence of events in the book of Esther that God, in His sovereign control of all things, brought to pass almost two and one-half millennia ago.