Arlen L. Chitwood
The Restoration of Israel
By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden three months by his parents, because they saw he was a beautiful child; and they were not afraid of the king’s command.
By faith Moses, when he became of age, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter,
choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin,
esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt; for he looked to the reward.
By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible.
By faith he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of blood, lest he who destroyed the firstborn should touch them.
By faith they passed through the Red Sea as by dry land, whereas the Egyptians, attempting to do so, were drowned. (Hebrews 11:23-29)
As seen in previous chapters in this book, Hebrews chapter eleven deals with the particular and peculiar experiences of a select group of individuals, taken mainly from the book of Genesis. Through singling out these individuals with their particular and peculiar experiences, the Spirit of God has not only provided spiritual truths pertaining to faith and the saving of the soul but, as well, a chronological framework of prophetic events revealing God’s plans and purposes extending throughout Man’s Day into the coming Lord’s Day. And the emphasis, as with all prophetic Scripture, is placed on the end times, beginning with the removal of the Church preceding the Tribulation.
Joseph’s mention of the departing of the children of Israel from Egypt and the commandment given concerning his bones form the closing verses in the book of Genesis (Hebrews 11:22; cf. Genesis 50:24, 25). Then, beginning with Moses’ birth (Hebrews 11:23; cf. Exodus 2:1ff), revelation in Hebrews chapter eleven, for the first time, moves beyond the book of Genesis.
Hebrews 11:23-29 refers to certain experiences of Moses, the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt, and the destruction of Pharaoh and his armed forces in the Red Sea. This deliverance of the Israelites is the same deliverance to which Joseph referred in the closing verses of Genesis. Joseph, however, referred not only to the Israelites being led “out of” Egypt, but also to the Israelites being brought “to the land of which He [God] swore to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob” (Genesis 50:24).
Although the account of the Israelites being led out of Egypt is given in the book of Exodus, the account of their being brought into the land is not given until the book of Joshua. Thus, these two books, along with the intervening books recording the wilderness wanderings and experiences of the Israelites (Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy), form God’s own commentary on Genesis 50:24, 25.
The historical account of the deliverance of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses, their experiences in the wilderness wanderings, and their entrance into and conquest of the land under Joshua, constitute a dual-type concerning God’s deliverance of Abraham’s two corporate seeds — his heavenly seed, and his earthly seed. There is a present deliverance for the heavenly seed of Abraham (the Church), with a view to a future inheritance in a heavenly habitation (the land presently occupied by Satan and his angels); and there is a future deliverance for the earthly seed of Abraham (Israel), with a view to an inheritance in an earthly habitation (the land covenanted to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to “be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled” [Luke 21:24]).
This is the same dual-type set forth in the previous experiences of Abraham as he traveled from Ur of the Chaldees to the land of Canaan, establishing in Genesis a basic type that remains unchanged throughout Scripture. The experiences of the Israelites under Moses, beginning in Exodus, merely enlarge upon the type previously established in Genesis. And we’re told in 1 Corinthians 10:6, 11, referring specifically to that part of the overall type beginning with the Red Sea crossing in Exodus,
Now these things became our examples [lit., happened as types for us], to the intent that we should not lust after evil things as they also lusted. . . .
Now all these things happened to them as examples [lit., happened to them for types], and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.
(The Greek word tupos [“type”] is used in both of the preceding verses. Some Greek manuscripts have the adverb, tupikos [“typically”], rather than the noun, tupos, in verse eleven — i.e., “these things happened unto them typically.”)
God has established this overall type beginning in Exodus — comprised of numerous individual types, drawing from the experiences of the Old Testament saints under Moses, and later under Joshua, experiences that occurred under God’s sovereign control of all things — in order to have object lessons that could later be used to teach His people the “deep things of God” concerning His dealings with Israel, the Church, and the nations.
Faith of . . .
Hebrews 11:23 refers to the faith of Moses’ parents at the time of his birth. Verses twenty-four through twenty-eight refer to the faith of Moses after he had “became of age” in the palace of the Pharaoh of Egypt; and verse twenty-nine refers to the faith of the nation of Israel, including Moses, as the people passed through the Red Sea upon their departure from Egypt.
The words “By faith” in this section, as throughout Hebrews chapter eleven, reflect back upon God’s previous revelation to the ones exercising faith, for apart from this revelation faith cannot exist.
1) The Faith of Moses’ Parents (v. 23)
Moses’ parents (Amram and Jochebed), through divine revelation, acted “by faith.” They disregarded the king’s commandment concerning the death of all newborn male children in the camp of Israel and hid their son (cf. Exodus 1:22). After three months, when he could no longer be hidden, Jochebed made an “ark of bulrushes” covered with “asphalt and pitch” and hid her child in the ark among the reeds at the edge of the Nile (Exodus 2:3).
Pharaoh’s daughter, coming down to the Nile to bathe, found the child. And continuing events coming to pass under the sovereign control of the Lord, honoring Amram’s and Jochebed’s faith, resulted in the child being returned to his own mother to be reared under the very protection of Pharaoh himself (Exodus 2:5-9).
Thus, the one who would one day deliver the Jewish people from Pharaoh’s hand was reared by his own mother under the very protection of the enemy, which illustrates the way God, at times, works out His plans and purposes regarding His people (cf. Exodus 9:13-16; Revelation 17:16, 17).
“Amram and Jochebed must have received a divine revelation (not recorded in the Old Testament), and this word from God formed the foundation of their confidence, and supplied the motive-power of what they did. It is true that they knew from the prophecy given to Abraham (Genesis 15) that the time for the deliverance of Israel from Egypt was drawing near, as they also knew from the prediction of Joseph (Genesis 50:24) that God was going to undertake for His people. Yet we are persuaded that Hebrews 11:23 refers to something more definite and specific.”
— A. W. Pink
2) The Faith of Moses (vv. 24-28)
God’s revelation to Amram and Jochebed was undoubtedly passed on to Moses by his mother while still a child under her care, for when he was grown and separated from his mother in the palace of Pharaoh, he acted “by faith.” He, at this time, acted upon the revelation of God concerning his true identity, his mission in life, and that which the future held.
a) By Faith Moses, “when he became of Age, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter” (v. 24).
Moses as the adopted son of Pharaoh’s daughter was in a position to participate in the affairs of Egypt as a member of Egypt’s royal family. But Moses, “when he became of age,” renounced his position in Pharaoh’s court, for he knew the destiny of both the people of God and those associated with Pharaoh’s rule in Egypt.
b) By Faith Moses Chose “rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin” (v. 25).
Although Moses in the court of Pharaoh was the adopted son of Pharaoh’s daughter, he chose to align himself with the people of God, who were about to be adopted as God’s firstborn son (Exodus 4:22).
The word “firstborn” carries the thought of supremacy. Israel, not Egypt, was to ultimately be the supreme nation. The wisdom, wealth, and power of Egypt were to be reduced to naught, and the afflicted people of God were, in the end, to be triumphant.
c) By Faith Moses Esteemed “the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt; for he looked to the reward” (v. 26).
The “reward” is twofold. Recompense for both the godly and the ungodly are in view — rewards and retribution. Moses knew that both would come to pass, and he refused to look upon the present “treasures” of Egypt, knowing that the only “riches” that would endure lay outside of Egypt. These riches were associated with Christ and the people of God; and these riches would be realized at a future time.
d) By Faith Moses “forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible” (v. 27).
With God’s revelation concerning the destiny of two nations in view, the simple statement is made, “By faith he forsook Egypt.”
The wrath of Pharaoh was ignored, for Moses, by and through the eyes of faith (the opposite of sight in Pharaoh’s court), saw the things of God — things impossible to behold through the natural eye (cf. Hebrews 11:3, 6).
e) By Faith Moses “kept [‘celebrated,’ ‘observed’] and the sprinkling of blood, lest he who destroyed the firstborn should touch them” (v. 28).
The institution of the Passover signaled the death of the firstborn — “from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the animals” (Exodus 11:5).
The death of the firstborn was the tenth and final plague wrought upon the kingdom of Egypt. And on this night, via the death of the firstborn, God announced that supremacy had passed from the powerful nation of Egypt to a nation of slaves — God’s firstborn son, the son whom God recognized as possessing the right to hold the scepter.
3) The Faith of the Israelites (v. 29)
The Israelites under Moses, “By faith . . . passed through the Red Sea,” but the pursuing Egyptians “were drowned” in the Sea. The Israelites acted upon God’s promise of deliverance from Egypt. They possessed God’s promise to Abraham (Genesis 15:13, 14); they possessed God’s promise through Joseph (Genesis 50:24, 25); they possessed as their leader the one approved by God among the people through “signs” (Exodus 4:29-31; cf. Acts 2:22); and they possessed God’s promise through Moses concerning the Red Sea passage itself (Exodus 14:15, 16).
Although supremacy among the nations passed from Egypt to Israel the night of the Passover, the power of Egypt was not reduced to naught until the Red Sea passage. Pharaoh and his armed forces were overthrown in the midst of the Sea. And it was then that God’s firstborn son, on the eastern banks of the Sea, sang the victor’s song (Exodus 14:26-30; 15:1ff).
Exodus — Its Historical Setting
Hebrews 11:23-29 is a brief synopsis of the first fifteen chapters of Exodus. Its place in Hebrews chapter eleven is immediately after the mention by Joseph of the “departure of the children of Israel” and the “instructions concerning his bones” (v. 22), and immediately before the destruction of “Jericho” (v. 30). The former refers to the resurrection and restoration of Israel, and the latter refers to the destruction of Gentile world power following Israel’s resurrection and restoration.
The intervening seven verses dealing with Moses (vv. 23-29) lead into events that actually connect verse twenty-two (the departure of the children of Israel, and the bones of Joseph) with verse thirty (the destruction of Jericho). The Exodus from Egypt under Moses in verse twenty-nine is synonymous with the departure of the children of Israel in verse twenty-two, and the destruction of the Egyptians in verse twenty-nine sets forth the same basic teaching as the destruction of Jericho in verse thirty.
The chronology of events is thus:
1) The resurrection of Israel (v. 22).
2) The restoration of Israel (vv. 22-29a).
3) The destruction of Gentile world power (vv. 29b, 30).
Individuals with their particular and peculiar experiences, the placement of these individuals within the framework of sections in books, or in books as a whole, and the arrangement of books within the canon of Scripture all fit together in perfect harmony to reveal God’s plans and purposes for man, plans and purposes that will culminate and be realized in the Messianic Era.
The opening verses of Genesis reveal the creation of the heavens and the earth, the ruin of the earth, the restoration of the earth, and the rest that followed six days of restorative work and man’s creation (Genesis 1:1-2:3).
In Genesis we find man’s beginning and the purpose for his creation, the entrance of sin into the human race, and God’s remedy for sin (chapters 1-4).
In Genesis we find the great Flood during Noah’s day, the call of Abraham, and the experiences in his life and in the lives of his descendants through particularly the third and fourth generations — the sons of Jacob, constituting the beginning of the twelve tribes of Israel, along with details near the end of the book concerning the sons of Joseph, with mention made of Joseph seeing one of his son’s children to the third generation (chapters 6-50).
And, as seen in previous chapters in this book, these events are far more than mere historical accounts concerning the origin of all things. These events occurred within the sphere of God’s divine plans and direction, under His sovereign control of all things, for God does not draw spiritual lessons from haphazard events. These events set forth, in type, great foundational, spiritual truths upon which the remainder of Scripture rests.
Once the foundation has been laid in Genesis, then the things in the book of Exodus can be brought forth and properly understood. Exodus records the death of the Passover lamb, the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, the journey to Mount Sinai to receive the Law (the Magna Charta for the kingdom, the rules and regulations governing the people within the theocracy), and the beginning of the wilderness journey toward the land of Canaan.
Exodus records the birth of a nation in the land of Egypt and the removal of this nation from Egypt. And from this point forward, this new nation, the nation of Israel, is God’s focal point in His dealings with the remainder of the nations of the earth.
(Shem and his descendants through Abraham, continuing with Abraham and his descendants through Isaac and Jacob, had formed God’s focal point for His dealings with mankind since the end of the Flood in Genesis chapter nine [over eight centuries earlier]. The difference seen in Exodus has to do with nations and the rights of the firstborn among these nations.
In Exodus, a nation was brought into existence, emanating from Shem and his descendants through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And this nation, not Egypt [typifying all of the Gentile nations], is recognized by God as His firstborn son, possessing, among other things connected with the birthright, the right to hold the scepter.)
The book of Exodus, as the book of Genesis, also records far more than mere historical beginnings. This book, in its typical teaching, builds upon foundational truths previously set forth in Genesis concerning both the heavenly and the earthly seed of Abraham.
In relation to the heavenly seed of Abraham, Exodus records the beginning of the Christian life — the appropriation of the blood of the Passover Lamb, followed by the Red Sea passage and the wilderness journey, with a view to the land lying out ahead.
And in relation to the earthly seed of Abraham, Exodus records the birth of a nation in the land of Egypt and the departure of this nation from Egypt during the days of Moses, which looks beyond these events to the rebirth of this same nation while in a worldwide dispersion, followed by the nation’s restoration during the days of the coming of the Son of Man.
The book of Exodus as a whole — drawing from the historical account — constitutes a detailed prophecy concerning God’s future dealings with Israel, from which God draws spiritual lessons pertaining to His present and future dealings with the Church.
Exodus — A Prophecy
As previously seen, during the days of Moses 3,500 years ago, the birth of a nation occurred in the land of Egypt. The book of Exodus, which records this birth, constitutes an overall type of that which is about to occur immediately before and after the time yet future when this same nation will be “born at once” (Isaiah 66:8). This book sets forth in chronological order events that will occur both during and after the coming Tribulation.
Exodus begins with the Israelites under bondage to the Assyrian in the land of Egypt. The revelation in this book moves through ten plagues brought upon Egypt, climaxed by the death of the firstborn. The Israelites — under the blood of the Passover lamb — were led out of Egypt, taken to Mount Sinai, and there the old covenant was made with Israel. The book terminates with Israel removed from Egypt, placed under the old covenant, and God Himself dwelling in their midst in the Holy of Holies in the tabernacle.
This is the point where the Theocratic Kingdom in Old Testament history began — God Himself dwelling in the midst of His people, governing these same people under the old covenant.
God has not left His people in darkness concerning that which He is about to do. In fact, just the opposite is the case. God has supplied a wealth of information — hundreds and hundreds of pages of detailed information — concerning that which He is about to bring to pass.
It is man who has ignored this revelation, producing a self-imposed darkness, not God who has failed to provide the revelation. And this is something seen throughout Christendom today. Very few Christians in the churches of the land today have any appreciation whatsoever for the vast amount of unfulfilled prophecy found in Scripture.
MOST of Genesis falls into this category. ALL of Exodus (save for parts of chapter two) has to do with events yet future. The book of Exodus, as the book of Genesis, is actual history fraught (filled) with types and meaning. The future time-period that God revealed to Moses, recorded in the book of Exodus, or previously recorded in the book of Genesis, is the same as that which God revealed to the Apostle John, recorded in the book of Revelation.
The book of Exodus though, unlike the book of Genesis, deals with this time-period (the Tribulation and beyond) in all forty chapters. In this respect, Exodus could be called “The Apocalypse of the Old Testament.”
The book of Exodus simply continues from that which began to be opened up in the book of Genesis, providing more details for events beginning in the Tribulation but centering on the deliverance of the Jewish people from a worldwide dispersion and ensuing events leading into the restoration of the kingdom to Israel. The plight of the Jews in the last days, the long-awaited national conversion and deliverance of Israel, and the restoration of the kingdom to Israel, under a new covenant, are told throughout forty chapters in the book of Exodus.
God has devoted one entire book of Moses, along with large segments of the other four books, to provide His people with details concerning events that are yet future, even during the days in which we presently live; and Christians who ignore this revelation do so to their own peril.
There are two great deliverances of the Jewish people in Scripture. One of the deliverances is past; the other is future. The first deliverance occurred under Moses; the second will occur under the One greater then Moses, the Lord Jesus Christ.
When God states that He will “bring again the captivity” of His people (Jeremiah 30:3, 18 [KJV]), or “set His hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people” (Isaiah 11:11), He is not alluding to a prior deliverance from the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities under Zerubbabel. This restoration was only partial, as is the present restoration of the Israelites to the land under a Zionistic movement.
There is only one restoration in all history that was complete and can be placed alongside, by way of parallel, the restoration that is about to occur. However, we are not left to any devices or imagination of our own to figure this out. Scripture reveals this for us. Note carefully Jeremiah 16:14, 15; 23:7, 8.
The past restoration constitutes an overall type of the future restoration. “Moses” is a type of Christ, and “Egypt” is always a type of the world in Scripture. The “deliverance from Egypt under Moses” is a type of the future deliverance from a worldwide dispersion under Jesus the Christ. Events on both sides of the actual deliverance from Egypt revealed in the book of Exodus complete the overall type and provide us with a detailed explanation concerning that which is about to occur in the antitype.
The type has been set, and the antitype must follow the type in exact detail.
The Coming Tribulation
The book of Exodus begins with Israel in Egypt under Assyrian bondage. The Assyrians had come down, conquered Egypt, and were at this time controlling the country. The “new king” (Exodus 1:8) who arose over Egypt was an Assyrian, not an Egyptian (Isaiah 52:4).
In Stephen’s address before the religious leaders in Israel almost 1,700 years later (Acts 7:1ff), attention was directed to this fact. In reiterating the history of Israel from the days of Abraham, Stephen referred to their bondage in Egypt under “another king . . . who knew not Joseph” (v. 18). The word “another” is a translation of the Greek word heteros (the Septuagint also used this same word in Exodus 1:8). This word means “another kind” of king, and has reference to a different dynasty. An Egyptian dynasty had previously been in power. But the Assyrians had come in, taken over the government, and a new dynasty of a different nationality then came into existence.
This is the reason that the governing power in Egypt looked upon the Israelites as “more and mightier than we” (Exodus 1:9). This statement could not be true if all Egypt were in view. The word “we” in this verse has to do with the Assyrians living in Egypt and controlling the affairs of state.
During the coming Tribulation the Israelites are going to find themselves scattered throughout the world under bondage to a Gentile governmental system controlled by “the Assyrian.” The coming man of sin will be an Assyrian (Isaiah 10:5, 12, 24-27; Micah 5:5, 6). That is, this man will arise out of that part of the world covered by the old Assyrian Empire (today this would encompass northern Iraq and parts of Syria, Iran, and Turkey [cf. Daniel 8:8, 9]).
The future Assyrian will deal with the Israelites just like his counterpart in Egypt during the days of Moses. He will “afflict” them. And just as the Israelites during the past affliction cried out to God for deliverance, they will cry out to the same God for deliverance during their future affliction. Then, just as God came down during the past affliction and delivered His people, He will come down during this future affliction and deliver His people (cf. Exodus 1:11; 3:7, 8; Deuteronomy 30:1-3; Hosea 5:15-6:2).
The manner in which God delivered His people the first time is the same manner in which He will deliver them the second time — bringing to naught Gentile world power, and personally leading them out. The ten plagues brought upon the Assyrian Kingdom in Egypt set forth in type that which is about to happen to the Assyrian Kingdom covering the entire world under the man of sin. “Ten” is the number of ordinal completion. This number has to do with all of God’s judgments upon the Assyrian Kingdom — both past and future — prior to leading His people out.
The Assyrian Kingdom in history was left in shambles at the termination of the plagues, and judgment upon his kingdom was completed immediately after the Israelites were led out of Egypt. At this time the Assyrian and his armed forces were overthrown in the Red Sea.
This same thing will happen to the Assyrian Kingdom yet future. The judgments brought upon the world during the Tribulation will leave his kingdom in shambles. Then, judgments following Christ’s return and acceptance by the Jewish people, typified by judgments following Moses’ return and acceptance by the Jewish people, will complete this disarray of his kingdom, preceding total, complete destruction.
Then, in the type, the destruction of the Assyrian and his armed forces in the Red Sea occurred after the plagues and after the Israelites had been delivered from Egypt. It will be after judgment in the antitype falls upon the kingdom of the Assyrian that the man of sin and his armies will be overthrown. And, exactly as in the type, this will occur after Christ returns to the earth and after the deliverance of Israel from a worldwide dispersion.
In the type, the death of the firstborn (the tenth and final plague) signaled that supremacy had passed from Egypt to Israel — death in relation to the firstborn in Egypt, the nation holding the scepter; life (by and through [vicarious] death) in relation to God’s firstborn son, the one which God recognized as possessing the right to hold the scepter. And Israel’s position was secured by the destruction of Pharaoh and his armed forces in the Red Sea.
Thus will it be in the antitype by and through the destruction of the Assyrian and his armed forces in that coming day, for Israel, God’s firstborn son, is to exercise supremacy over the nations during the coming age.
Events Following the Exodus
Following the Exodus from Egypt the Israelites were led into Arabia. There God established the old covenant with Israel.
When God reaches out to deliver His people a second time He will bring them into the “wilderness of the people.” They will likely be brought to the same place in Arabia where they were brought following the first deliverance. There God will establish a new covenant with the house of Israel. He will also judge His people at this time, purging out the “rebels” and “transgressors,” as aforetime, before allowing His people to enter into the land of Israel (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Ezekiel 20:34-38).
The latter part of the book of Exodus is taken up with instructions concerning the priesthood and tabernacle. Moses is the one who built the tabernacle. He built it exactly as God had previously instructed him, according to the pattern of an existing tabernacle in heaven. When Moses finished all the work, the Glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle, and the book terminates with a Theocratic Kingdom in existence in the camp of Israel.
When the One who is greater than Moses returns to the earth, He will build the temple of the Lord (Zechariah 6:11-13). When He finishes all the work, the Glory of the Lord will be restored to Israel, and there will once again be a Theocratic Kingdom in existence in the camp of Israel (Ezekiel 43:2-5).
Two days await Israel — the darkest day in Jewish history (the coming Tribulation), followed by the brightest day (the Messianic Era).
God’s affliction of His son must be completed; Gentile activity in helping forward this affliction must also be completed (Zechariah 1:12-15). THEN, shall “the Sun of Righteousness shall arise with healing in His wings” (Malachi 4:2). The NATION will be restored, the GLORY will be restored, the KINGDOM will be restored, and God’s complete purpose for calling this nation into existence will be realized.